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Definitions for Pathophysiology - Blinn College EMS Program

symptom What patient tells you about their problem
sign objective finding through physical exam
acute sudden onset
iatrogenic relating to illness caused by medical treatment.
chronic long term or slow onset
sequelae expected or common complication
mesoderm middle germ layer
endoderm The innermost germ cell layer is called the:
exoderm outermost germ layer
epithelial The tissue that lines internal and external body surfaces and protects the body is called:
cell The basic structural unit of all plants and animals
semipermeable cell membrane allows certain substances, but not all, to pass through
Cytoplasm The thick fluid that fills a cell
Organelles Structures that perform specific functions within a cell
Nucleus The organelle within a cell that contains the DNA
homeostasis natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady and normal internal environment
hypertrophy increase in cell size resulting from an increased workload
endocrine hormones released into the bloodstream
exocrine secreted through a duct that opens into an organ or outside the body
pathophysiology the study of disease
pathology medical science that deals with all aspects of disease
pathologist physician who specializes in pathology
predisposing factors factors that influence disease and risk; include age, gender, genetics, lifestyle, and environment
pathogenesis sequence of events that lead to disease development
idiopathic cause of the disease cannot be identified
etiology occurrences, reasons, variables of the disease
clinical presentation manifestation of a disease
Big Bang Theory Theory that hypothesizes that the universe began with the explosion of a primeval atom
Chemical Evolution simple chemicals combined to form larger, more complex chemicals, leading to self-replication of those chemicals
Element simplest substance; cannot be broken down further
Atomic Number # of protons, the way the periodic table classifies elements
Isotope Element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Mass number # of protons and # of neutrons
Valence Shell Outermost orbital of an atom, contains valence electrons
Orbital surrounds nucleus, contains orbit path for electrons
Noble gas gas with a completely full valence shell; very stable
Radioactive Isotope Isotope with an unstable nucleus; nuclei break down and emit radiation
Covalent Bond atomic bond where electrons are shared between atoms, most st
Ionic Bond bonds form between atoms of opposite (positive/negative) charges.
cation molecule with a positive charge
anion molecule with a negative charge
ion atom or molecule that acquired an electrical charge
polar bond unequal covalent bond, creating a molecule with ends that have opposite charge (example: H2O)
hydrogen bond bonding between water molecules; gives water its unique properties
inorganic materials do not contain carbon, were never living. Examples: acids, metals, minerals
organic materials contain carbon, were part of a living organism. Examples: lipids, proteins, carbohydrates
compound combination of 2 or more elements; include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
monosaccharide simple sugar; example: glucose
disaccharide complex sugar; example: lactose
polysaccharide molecules that contain long chains of monosaccharides; example: cellulose, glycogen
protien basic building block of the cell, function to grow and repair living tissues
peptide protein chain of less than 10 amino acids
polypeptide protein chain of more than 10 amino acids
enzyme protein that speeds up chemical reactions
substrate substance that binds to enzyme forming a complex
Cofactor inorganic non-protein substancex; helps the enxyme to convert substrate to end product
Coenzyme organic co-factor substance; necessary for some enzymes to convert substrate to end product
Nucleic Acid two long polymers (nucleotides) which are joined by pairs of nucleobases
Nucleobase 5 carbon sugar molecule - in DNA include: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
DNA nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for life; humans have 23 pairs
RNA chemical similar to DNA; major role in protein synthesis, instead f two polymer chains only has one
ATP nucleotide; one of monomers of RNA. Principal source of energy
Lipids non-polar chemicals that do not dissolve in water. Long term energy storage
Triglycerides rich source of energy, can be saturated or unsaturated
Phospholipids class of lipid that forms a major part in cell membrane
anabolism synthesis of steroid compound by the body
steroid basic unit is cholesterol; component of cell membrane and function as signaling cells
Prokaryotic cell cell that doesn't have a nucleus or organelles; example: bacteria
Eukaryotic cell cell that has a nucleus and organelles
Mitochondria organelle that is responsible for cellular respiration and production of ATP
Endoplasmic reticulum maintains plasma membrane; rough and smooth
Golgi apparatus processes proteins for cell membrane and other organelles
Lysosomes garbage disposal system of the cell; break down foreign substances, degrade worn out parts of the cell
Microtubules & Microfilaments long hollow rods and filaments that maintain cell structure
Centrioles cylindrical structures that are composed of groups of microtubules
Receptor protein protein in cell membrane in cell membrane that binds to chemical messengers
Enzyme protein protein in cell membrane that breaks down a chemical messenger and stops its effect on the cell
Channel protein protein in cell membrane that is constantly open and allows solutes to pass in and out of the cell
Gated channel protein protein in cell membrane that opens and closes to allow solutes into the cell only at certain times
Cell Identity marker protein in cell membrane that allows the body to recognize cells as belonging in the body or as foreign
Cell-Adhesion molecule (CAM) protein in cell membrane that allows one cell to bind to another
Simple diffusion Random movement from region of high to region of low concentration
Facilitated diffusion Movement from region of high to region of low concentration with the aid of a carrier or channel protein; example: glucose into cell
Osmosis Movement of water from a region of high water concentration (low solute concentration) to a region of low water concentration (high solute concentration)
Active Transport Movement from region of high to region of low concentration with the aid of a carrier or channel protein and energy, usually from ATP; example: sodium-potassium pump
Isotonic solution concentrations of solutions on both sides of semipermeable membrane are equal.
Hypertonic solution solution on outside of membrane more concentrated (more solute) than solution on inside of membrane
Hypotonic solution solution outside cell is less concentrated (less solute) than inside cell
Sodium-potassium pump the cell membrane protein that functions to pump out 3 sodium molecules and pump in 2 potassium molecules
Exocytosis membrane-bound vesicle containing substance to be released from cell approaches cell membrane.
Endocytosis large molecules enter cell by becoming encircled in membrane vesicle.
Phagocytosis cell engulfs large particles or bacteria.
Pinocytosis cell engulfs droplets of fluid carrying dissolved substances.
Glucose required for cellular energy production - formula C6H12O6
Aerobic respiration formula Reactants C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> Outputs 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~36ATP
Glycolysis occurs outside the mitochondria, produces 4 ATP but requires 2 ATP - Net production is 2 ATP. Can occur with or without oxygen
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) occurs in the mitochondria but outside the cristae, precursor to the electron transport chain; requires oxygen
Electron Transport Chain occurs in the cristae in the mitochondria, produces ~34 ATP, requires oxygen
Fermentation happens after glycolysis, anaerobic process - results in lactic acid production
Acid substance that gives up protons, low pH
Base substance that gain electrons, high pH
Acidosis condition where the blood pH is low; results in neurons becoming less excitable, CNS depression
Alkalosis condition where the blood pH is high; results in hyper-excitable neurons, muscle spasms, seizures
20:1 Ratio of bases: acids
Buffer substance that counteracts changes in pH
Carbonic acid - bicarbonate buffer system system that functions in the intravascular fluid; uses carbonic anhydrase as the enzyme to catalyze the reaction
Protein buffering system system that helps stabilize pH in both extracellular and intracellular fluid; utilizes red blood cells and amino acids
Phosphate buffering system system that stabilizes the pH of urine, functions in the intracellular fluid
22-26 mEq normal levels of bicarbonate in the blood
35-45 mmHg normal levels of PCO2 in the blood
7.35-7.45 normal pH of the blood
Respiratory acidosis created by hypoventilation or other respiratory system malfunction, when PCO2 exceeds 45 and pH is too low
Respiratory alkalosis created by hyperventilation or excessive loss of CO2; PCO2 less than 35 and pH is high
Metabolic acidosis created by deficiency of bicarbonate, HCO3- is below 22 and pH is low
Metabolic alkalosis created by deficiency of H+ ions or excess of bicarbonate, HCO3- is above 26 and pH is high
Atrophy decrease in cell size due to lack of use or pathological factors
Hyperplasia increase in cell numbers in ordered growth
Ischemia decreased blood flow in organ or tissue
Hypoxia low oxygen levels
Free radical molecule that is missing electrons in its valence shell; steal electrons from surrounding molecules, creating new free radicals. Example: oxygen
Metaplasia adult cells that change from one type to another
Dysplasia abnormal and/or disordered cell growth; precursor to cancer
Apoptosis cell-programmed death; cell "suicide"
Necrosis non-programmed cell death; cell "murder"
70% percent of total body water found in intracellular space
30% percent of total body water found in extracellular space
25% percent of extracellular total body water found in interstitial space
5% percent of extracellular total body water found in vessels
Third spacing shifting of fluid from vascular space to interstitial space
Interstitial space space between the cells but outside the vasculature
Electrolyte substance that disassociates in water to become electrically charged particles
Sodium most prominent extracellular cation
Potassium most prominent intracellular cation
Chloride provides neutrality to sodium and other cations, functions in protein buffering system
Aldosterone made in adrenal cortex; main mineralocorticoid, signals to retain sodium
Renin made by kidneys, signals conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) located primarily in lungs, converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Angiotensin I created from angiotensinogen and renin - gets further converted by angiotensin converting enzyme
Angiotensinogen secreted by the liver; inactive until combined with renin - created angiotensin I
Angiotensin II product of angiotensin converting enxyme (ACE) and angiotensin I - signals vasoconstriction and fluid retention
Calcium function in muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and bone building
Magnesium muscle relaxation, works to balance calcium
Oncotic pressure creates a 'pull' into the blood vessels; created by plasma proteins
Hydrostatic pressure creates a 'push' out of the blood vessels, created by fluid volume inside the blood vessels
Phosphate role in buffering system - intracellular actions, associated with magnesium
Plasma liquid portion of the blood - mostly water - medium for the transport of nutrients and carbon dioxide waste in the form of bicarbonate
Erythrocytes most common formed element, oxygen carrying capacity, role in protein buffering system
Leukocytes many types, role in the immune system; one of the formed elements in blood
Thrombocytes formed element responsible for clotting blood during injury
Antigen protein marker identifying self or non-self in blood cells
A, B, O blood group antigens
Rh Factor factor that is either positive (present) or negative (absent) in the ABO blood type system
O Negative universal blood donor
AB Positive Universal blood receipient
Hemolytic disease of the newborn / Erythroblastosis Fetalis condition where a female patient who is Rh negative has developed antibodies against a Rh positive baby , then becomes pregnant a second time with a Rh positive baby
Connective tissue tissue that forms a framework in the body - includes fat cells, blood cells, fibroblasts, collagen and elastin
Muscle tissue responsible for movement of substances and voluntary movement; includes skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
Nervous tissue coordinates activities in the body; found in the central nervous system and peripheral nerves
Neoplasia type of dysplasia that develops into tumors
Benign non-harmful type of tumor
Malignant harmful type of tumor
Metastasis spread of tumor through the bloodstream to other areas
Germ theory Theory that some disease processes caused by microorganisms
Incidence fraction of the population that contracts the disease during a set period
Prevelance fraction of the population that has the disease at one time
Mortality fraction of people that die from the disease
Causal factors factors shown to cause disease & can determine the severity of the outcome
Non-causal factors can predict disease development, but removal of these factors does not prevent disease acquisition
Alarm stage 'fight or flight' response - initial stage of stress response where catecholamines are released
Resistance second stage of stress response; body's way of adapting to stressors
Glucocorticoids function in cell repair, protein synthesis, stimulates gluconeogenesis - major example: cortisol; released during resistance phase
Mineralocorticoids function in fluid balance - major example: aldosterone; released during resistance phase
Exhaustion third phase of stress response - adrenal glands are depleted, glucose levels drop, immune system is compromised
General Adaptation Syndrome body's way of adapting to stress; three stages
Catecholamines fight or flight hormones released: epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
Cortisol major glucocorticoid; stimulates cell metabolism, gluconeogenesis, protein metabolism, suppresses immune system
Growth hormone cell growth & repair hormone, increases in eustress and decreases during prolonged stress periods
Eustress good stress
Distress bad stress