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Honors Biology Ch 1

Sub chapter glossary terms Subchapters 6 - 11

TermDefinition
Anthropoidea A suborder that includes the higher primates; monkeys, apes and humans.
anthropoids The Anthropoidea, a suborder that includes the higher primates; monkeys, apes and humans.
apes Any of the large tailless semierect primates (as the chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, or gibbon) descended from the Old World monkeys.
great apes The non-gibbon apes, including chimpanzees, gorillas, orang-utan, and humans.
humans A bipedal primate mammal (Homo sapiens).
lesser apes Apes of the genus Hylobates, the gibbons.
Linnaean system A system of taxonomic categories that reflect the degree to which organisms are related.
New World monkeys Monkeys of the suborder Anthropoidea from Mexico and South America that emerged about 40 million years ago.
Old World monkeys Monkeys of the suborder Anthropoidea found in Asia and Africa that are likely the predecessors of modern apes.
phylogenetic tree A graphic representation of the evolutionary relationships between organisms.
primates Members of the order Primates of the class Mammalia including humans, apes, monkeys, and related forms.
Prosimii A suborder of primates that includes lemurs and tarsiers.
amphibians A class of vertebrates that includes frogs, salamanders, and caecilians.
analogous structures Structures that occur in different species that have superficial and functional similarities, not because of common ancestry, but because of convergent evolution.
appendix The reduced remnant of the cecum found in carnivores.
carnivores Animals that eat meat.
cecum An organ in herbivores that harbors bacteria that can digest cellulose.
cellulose A structural polysaccharide found in the cell wall of plants.
convergent evolution The process by which structures with similar functions and similar appearance arise separately in different species.
herbivores Plant-eating animals.
homologies Equivalent structures resulting from shared ancestry.
homologous structures Equivalent structures shared by species with common ancestors.
inheritance The passage of characteristics from generation to generation.
vestigial structure A body part that is degenerate or imperfectly developed in comparison to one more fully developed in closely related species.
adaptive radiation The evolution of many related species from an ancestral species in a relatively short time.
cladogenesis A pattern of evolutionary change that occurs when new species branch from existing ones.
cladogenesis A pattern of evolutionary change that occurs when new species branch from existing ones.
genetic divergence An accumulation of changes that occur between isolated gene pools.
geographical isolation The separation of a population from other populations of the same species due to geographical barriers.
hybrid Having to do with a mating between unlike parents, either with different genotypes or from different, closely related, species.
postzygotic isolation Categories of reproductive isolation that impose barriers to successful reproduction that occur after fertilization has taken place.
prezygotic isolation Categories of reproductive isolation that impose barriers to successful reproduction that take place before fertilization.
reproductive isolation The inability for members of a population to reproduce with other populations of the same species.
speciation The process by which new species arise. Mechanisms include geographic isolation, genetic divergence, and reproductive isolation.
species A group of organisms that can breed with one another in a wild, free-ranging condition to produce fertile offspring. It is also the second name in the binomial system of nomenclature.
artificial selection The process by which desirable traits are selected for breeding in plants and animals.
natural selection The differential success in reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment.
abiotic Nonliving environmental factors including light, temperature, nutrients and water.
aerobic Requiring oxygen
biotic Relating to living organisms.
catalyst A substance such as an enzyme that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a faster rate than otherwise possible.
coacervate An aggregate of polymerized molecules, such as starches and proteins, that self-assemble.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; A double stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule that determines the structure of proteins.
Manfred Eigen (1927– ) The German physicist who found that small portions of RNA can self-replicate.
eukaryote A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles.
J.B.S. Haldane (1892–1964) British geneticist and physiologist who hypothesized that the conditions of primitive Earth included a reducing atmosphere; an appropriate atmosphere for the synthesis of carbon-containing molecule
heterotroph An organism that is not able to
heterotroph hypothesis A hypothesis that attempts to explain how life on Earth first evolved. The heterotroph hypothesis suggests that the first living organisms were heterotrophs and from them autotrophs evolved.
hypothesis A proposed explanation for an observation.
liposome . A shell of lipids that self-assembles to surround water and molecules
microsphere An aggregate formed when proteinoids self-assemble to surround water and exhibit some characteristics of a membrane.
nucleotide The building block of a nucleic acid. It consists of a five carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Alexander Oparin (1894–1980) Russian biochemist who hypothesized that the conditions of primitive Earth included an atmosphere appropriate for the synthesis of carbon-containing molecules.
oxidizing atmosphere An atmosphere that contains high amounts of oxygen (O2) which participates in oxidation reactions that are not favorable for synthesizing organic molecules.
polymer A molecule made up of individual subunits bonded together to make one long chain.
polymerization The process by which smaller units, monomers, are joined together to form a chain or polymer.
polymerize To combine two or more monomers into a polymer.
prokaryote An organism lacking a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
protein synthesis The processes of transcription, translation, and additional conformational changes that results in the creation of a protein molecule.
proteinoid An abiotically produced polypeptide.
protobiont An aggregate of molecules that might have been a precursor to biological cells.
reducing atmosphere An atmosphere rich in reducing agents. It is favorable for synthesizing organic molecules.
replication The process by which DNA is copied.
ribozyme An RNA catalyst.
RNA ribonucleic acid; A single-stranded nucleic acid molecule invoved in translating DNA into proteins.
stromatolite Representative of the oldest known life on Earth. Dome-shaped fossils of bacteria (prokaryotes) that are between 3.5 and 4 billion years old. Since 1956 extant colonies have been found in such places as Western Australia and North America.
theory A comprehensive explanation based on a broad set of observations.
animal Any member of the kingdom Animalia
class A taxonomic category, below the phylum and above the order.
domain The highest-level taxonomic category, superior to kingdom. The category was proposed in 1990 by Woese, Kandler, and Wheelis to reflect present understanding of the deepest relationships of life on earth as suggested by molecular data.
family A taxonomic category below the order and above the genus.
fungi Any of the kingdom of organisms characterized by chitinous cell walls and a feeding mechanism that involves external digestion and absorption of nutrients through the cell wall and membrane.
genus A taxonomic category above the species and below the family level.
homeostasis The stable internal environment that is maintained within the body; the steady physiological state of an organism.
kingdom A taxonomic category above the phylum (division) and below the domain.
Linnaean system A system of taxonomic categories that reflect the degree to which organisms are related.
Monera One-celled prokaryotes.
order A taxonomic category above the family and below the class level.
phylum A taxonomic category above the class and below the kingdom level. (In plants it is customary to refer to this classification level as the “division”).
plant A member of the kingdom Plantae.
Plantae The kingdom of organisms that are multicellular and photosynthetic.
protista One-celled eukaryotes.
species A group of organisms that can breed with one another in a wild, free-ranging condition to produce fertile offspring. It is also the second name in the binomial system of nomenclature.
Created by: HaileighBurkhart