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hair, skin, nails

acrocyanosis bluish discoloration of hands and feet - may be present at birth and may persist for several days or longer if newborn is kept in cool ambient environment
alopecia hair loss
alopecia areata sudden, rapid, patchy loss of hair, usually from scalp or face
annular round, active margins with central clearing
apocrine glands specialized structures found only in the axillae, nipples, areolae, anogenital area, eyelids, and external ears
cellular stratum one of the major layers in epidermis - where keratin cells are synthesized
cellulitis diffuse, acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
chloasma occurs in pregnant women - found on forehead, cheeks, bridge of nose, and chin - blotchy and symmetrical
confluent lesions run together
cutis mormorata mottled appearance of the body and extremities of the skin of newborns when exposed to decreased temperatures
dermatomal lesion that follows a nerve or segment of the body
dermis richly vascular connective tissue layer of the skin that supports and separates the epidermis from the cutaneous adipose tissue
ecchymosis discoloration (bruising) produced by injury
eccrine glands glands that open directly to the skin surface and are found throughout the body except in the lip margins, eardrums, nail beds, inner surface of the prepuce and glans penis
exzematous dermatitis most common inflammatory skin disorder - several forms exist: irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis
epidermis outer portion of skin - consists of two layers
erythema toxicum pink papular rash with vesicles superimposed on thorax, back, buttocks, and abdomen in newborns about 36 hrs after birth
folliculitis inflammation and infection of the hair follicle and surrounding dermis
furnucle deep seated infection of the pilosebaceous unit
generalized widely distributed or present in several areas simultaneously
herpes simplex infection caused by herpes simplex virus
herpes zoster infection caused by varicella zoster virus
hypodermis layer of skin that connects the dermis to the underlying organs that consist of loose connective tissue filled with fatty cells
keloid irregular shape, elevated, progressively enlarging hypertrophied scar tissue
keratin waterproofing protein found in the stratum corneum
lanugo fine, silky hair of newborns found on back and shoulders
melanin synthesized in the stratum germinativum by melanocytes and is pigment that gives skin its color
mongolian spots irregular areas of deep blue pigmentation on the sacral and gluteal regions of a newborn - most predominately occurs in people of African, Native American, Asian, and Latin descent
morbilliform refers to maculopapular lesions that become confluent on the face and body
nails epidermal cells converted to hard plates of keratin
nevus mole that varies in size and degree of pigmentation
papillae loops of capillaries that supply nourishment for hair follicles
petechiae tiny, flat, purple or red spots on skin surface - resulting from minute hemorrhages within dermal layer smaller than 0.5cm in diameter
pityriasis rosea self-limiting inflammation of unknown cause
plaque type of skin lesion common in pts with psoriasis
psoriasis chronic and recurrent disease of keratin synthesis
pruritic urticarial plapules and plaque of pregnancy benign dermatosis that usually arises late in 3rd trimester of first pregnancy
reticulate referring to lesion with netlike or lacy appearance
rosacea chronic inflammatory skin disorder
salmon patches (stork bite) flat, deep pink localized areas usually seen on mid-forehead, eyelids, upper lip, and back of neck on newborn
sebum lipid substance that keeps skin and hair from drying out
serpiginous lesions that appear to occur in wavy line
stellate star shaped lesion
stratum corneum outermost layer of epidermis - protects body against environmental stressors and water loss
stratum lucidum layer of epidermis found in thicker skin of palms and soles
telangiectasis permanently dilated, small blood vessels consisting of venules, capillaries, or arterioles
terminal hair course, longer, thicker, and usually pigmented hair
tinea group of noncandidal fungal infections that involve the stratum corneum, nails and hair
vellus hair short, fine hair that is non-pigmented
vernix caseosa mixture of sebum and cornified epidermis that covers infant's body at birth
vesicle fluid-filled and elevated, but superficial, skin lesion
wood's lamp type of lamp used to evaluate epidermal hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesion and to distinguish the fluorescing skin lesions
purpura red-purple nonblanchable discoloration greater than 0.5 cm in diameter
spider angioma red central body with radiating spider-like legs that blanch with pressure to central body
venous star bluish spider, linear or irregularly shaped - does not blanch with pressure
clostridium gas gangrene smells like rotten apples
proteus infection smells mousy
pseudomonas infection (especially burns) smells grapelike
tuberculosis lymphadentitis (scrofula) smells like stale beer
anaerobic infection; scurvy smells putrid
intestinal obstruction; peritonitis smells feculent
phenylketonuria smells mousy, musty
skin lesion describes any pathologic skin change or occurrence - may be primary or secondary
primary skin lesion those that occur as initial spontaneous manifestations of a pathologic process
secondary skin lesion those that result from later evolution of or external trauma to a primary lesion
macule flat, circumscribed area that is a change in the color of the skin - less than 1 cm in diameter - ex) freckles, flat moles, petechiae, measles
papule elevated, firm circumscribed area - less than 1 cm in diameter - ex) wart (verruca), elevated moles, lichen planus
patch flat, nonpalpable, irregularly shaped macule greater than 1 cm in diameter - ex) vitiligo, port wine stains, mongolian spots, cafe au lait patch
plaque elevated, firm, and rough lesion with flat top surface greater than 1 cm in diameter - ex) psoriasis, seborrheic and actinic kerotoses
wheal elevated, irregular shaped area of cutaneous edema - solid, transient, variable diameter - ex) insect bites, urticaria, allergic reaction
nodule elevated, firm, circumscribed lesion - deeper in dermis than a papule - 1-2 cm in diameter - ex) erythema nodosum, lipoma
tumor elevated and solid lesion - may or may not be clearly demarcated - deeper in dermis - greater than 2 cm in diameter - ex) neoplasms, benign tumor, lipoma
vesicle elevated, circumscribed, superficial, not into dermis - filled with serous fluid - less than 1 cm in diameter - ex) varicella (chickenpox), herpes zoster (shingles)
bulla vesicle greater than 1 cm in diameter - ex) blister, pemphigus vulgaris
pustule elevated, superficial lesion - similar to vesicle but filled with purulent fluid - ex) impetigo, acne
cyst elevated, circumscribed encapsulated lesion - in dermis or subcutaneous layer - filled with liquid or semisolid material - ex) sebacceous cyst, cystic acne
scale heaped up, keratinized cells; flaky skin, irregular, thick or thin, dry or oily, variation in size - ex) flaking of skin with seborrheic dermatitis or following drug reaction, dry skin
lichenification rough, thickened epidermis secondary to persistent rubbing, itching, or skin irritation - often involves flexor surface of extremity - ex) chronic dermatitis
scar thin to thick fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin following injury or laceration to the dermis
excoriation loss of epidermis - linear hollowed out, crusted area - ex) abrasion or scratch, scabies
fissure linear crack or break from epidermis to dermis - may be moist or dry - ex) athlete's foot, cracks at corner of mouth
erosion loss of part of the epidermis - depressed, moist, glistening, follows rupture of vesicle or bulla - ex) varicella, variola after rupture
ulcer loss of epidermis and dermis - concave, varies in size - ex) decubiti, stasis ulcer
crust dried serum, blood or purulent exudates - slightly elevated, size varies - brown, red, black, tan or straw-colored - ex) scab on abrasion, eczema
atrophy thinning of skin surface and loss of skin markings - skin translucent and paper-like - ex) striae, aged skin
discrete margin well demarcated or defined - able to draw a line around it with confidence
indistinct margin poorly defined, have borders that merge into normal skin or outlying ill-defined papules
active margin margin of lesion shows greater activity than center
irregular margin nonsmooth or notched margin
border raised above margin center of lesion depressed compared to the edge
advancing margin expanding at margins
central clearing erythematous border surrounds lighter skin
desquamation peeling or sloughing of skin
keratotic hypertrophic stratum corneum
punctation central umbillication or dimpling
basal cell carcinoma most common form of skin cancer - arises from basal layer of epidermis - occurs most frequently on face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders
squamous cell carcinoma second most common form of skin cancer - malignant tumor arises in epithelium - occurs most frequently in sun exposed areas, scalp, back of hands, lower lip, ear
malignant melanoma lethal form of skin cancer that develops from melanocytes
Created by: stephanie.gage