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Chapter 1 Sec 1-3

Bio Glossary

TermDefinition
BIOLOGY Study of life.
ORGANIZATION High degree of order within an organism's internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world.
CELL Smallest unit that can perform all life's processes.
UNICELLULAR Organisms that are made up of one cell, as bacteria.
MULTICELLULAR Organisms that are made up of multiple cells, like humans or trees.
ORGAN Structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system.
TISSUE Groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow organ to function and other cellular functions.
ORGANELLE Tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive.
BIOLOGICAL MOLECULE Chemical compounds that provide physical structure and that bring movement and energy use.
HOMEOSTASIS Maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions.
METABOLISM Sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy materials from the environment.
CELL DIVISION Formation of two new cells from an existing cell.
DEVELOPMENT Process by which an organism becomes a mature adut.
REPRODUCTION Process in which organisms produce new organisms like themselves.
GENE Short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for a single trait of an organism.
DOMAIN Subdivisions of all organisms.
KINGDOM A traditional taxonomic system, the highest taxonomic category, which contains a group of similar phyla.
ECOLOGY The study of interactions between organisms and the other living and nonliving components of their environment.
ECOSYSTEM A community of organisms and their abiotic environment.
EVOLUTION A heritable change in the characteristics within a population fro one generation to the next; the development of new types of organisms from preexisting types of organisms over time.
NATURAL SELECTION The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do; a theory to explain the mechanism of evolution.
ADAPTATION The process of becoming adapted to an environment; an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral trait that improves an organism's ability to survive and repoduce.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD Series of steps followed too solve problems, including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis and stating conclusions.
OBSERVATION The information obtained by using the senses.
HYPOTHESIS In science, an idea or explanation that is based on observations and can be tested.
PREDICTION A statement made in advance that express the results that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis if the hypothesis is supported.
EXPERIMENT A procedure that is carried out under controlled conditions to discover, demonstrate, or test a fact, theory or general truth.
CONTROL GROUP In an experiment, a group that serves as a standard of comparison with another group to which the control group is identical except for one factor
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP In an experiment, a group that is identical to a control group except for one factor that is compared with the control group
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE In an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE In an experiment, the factor that changes as a result of manipulation of one or more other factors.
THEORY An explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation and reasoning.
PEER REVIEW The process in which experts in a given field examine the results and conclusions of a scientist's study before that study is accepted for publication.
COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE A microscope that uses light to illuminate a specimen that is then magnified by two lenses.
EYEPIECE (OCULAR LENS) The part of a compound ligt microscope that magnifies an image, usually 10 times.
OBJECTIVE LENS The part of a compound light microscope that is located directly above the specimen and that magnifies theimage of the specimen.
STAGE platform that supports a slide holding the specimen
LIGHT SOURCE is a light bulb that provides light for viewing the image.
MAGNIFICATION The increase of an object's apparent size by using lenses or mirrors.
NOSEPIECE The part of a compound light microscope that holds the objective lenses in place above the specimen.
RESOLUTION is the power to show details clearly in an image.
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) A microscope that produces an enlarged, three-dimensional image of an object by using a beam of electrons rather than light
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (TEM) a microscope that transmits a beam of electrons through a very thin slice of specimen and that can magnify up to 200,00 times
BASE UNIT One of the fundamental units of measurement that describes length, mass, time and other quantities and from which other units are derived.
metric system single, standard system of measurement
Created by: navarroc20