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Ch. 3 vocab

Ch. 3 vocab pg. 61

TermDefinition
active site on an enzyme, the site that attaches to a substrate
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
amino acid a compound of a class of simple organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
carbohydrate a class of molecules that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
condensation reaction a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
functional group the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
hydrolysis a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base
lipid a fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties; examples include oils, waxes, and steroids
macromolecule a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
monomer a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer
monosaccharide a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
organic compound a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
polymer a large molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or small units
polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
polysaccharide one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen
protein an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
ribonucleic acid (RNA) ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
steroid a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
triglyceride a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
Created by: hopeeng02