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Oneill - civil #4

Oneill - Civil Right and Liberties Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Bill of Rights: The first ten amendments to the Constitution.
Civil Liberties: Legal and constitutional protections against government infringement of political liberties and criminal rights.
Eighth Amendment prohibits such punishment.
Establishment Clause: First Amendment prohibits the government from establishing a religion; is the basis for separation of church and state.
Exclusionary Rule: Prohibits the government from including illegally obtained evidence in a trial. Link to: Mapp v. Ohio
Fifth Amendment: Prohibits government from forcing individuals to testify against themselves.
First Amendment: Establishes freedom of religion, press, speech, and assembly.
Free Exercise Clause: Government is prohibited in the First Amendment from interfering in the practice of religion.
Incorporation Doctrine: Legal concept under which the Supreme Court has “nationalized” the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment.
Libel: Publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone’s reputation. Link to: 1st Amendment
Prior Restraint: Government instrument to prevent material from being published. Link to: 1st Amend.
Probable Cause: Police must have a good reason to arrest or search someone. Link to: 4th Amendment
Right to Privacy: A contrived right from unstated liberties in the Bill of Rights. Helped decriminalize abortion.
Self-incrimination: Testifying against oneself; forced confession. Link to: 5th Amendment
Sixth Amendment: Designed to protect individuals accused of crimes; includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
Unreasonable Searches & Seizures: Obtaining evidence without a good reason. Link to: 4th Amendment
Civil Rights: Extending citizenship rights to those previously denied them.
Affirmative Action: A policy designed to give special consideration to those previously discriminated against.
Americans w/ Disabilities Act: Passed in 1990; strengthened protections of individuals with disabilities by requiring employers and public facilities to make “reasonable accommodations” and prohibiting employment discrimination against people with disabilities.
Civil Rights Act of 1964: Forbids discrimination in public accommodations and facilities.
Equal Protection of the Laws: Provided by the Fourteenth Amendment mandating that all people be protected by the law. Link to: incorporation doctrine.
Fifteenth Amendment: Provides the right to vote for African Americans.
Fourteenth Amendment: Prohibits states from denying equal protection of the laws.
Nineteenth Amendment: Provided women with the right to vote.
Poll Taxes: Taxes levied on the right to vote designed to disenfranchise poor blacks.
Suffrage: The legal right to vote. Link to: Amendments 15, 19, and 26
Thirteenth Amendment: Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude.
Twenty-fourth Amendment: Prohibited poll taxes in federal elections
Voting Right Act of 1965: A policy designed to reduce the barriers to voting for those suffering discrimination.
Created by: oneillp