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Biochem- Chapter 2

Chapter 2 & 3 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass the quantity of matter an object has.
Atom The simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
Nucleus The central region of an atom
Proton A positively charged subatomic particle
Atomic Number The number of protons in an atom
Mass Number an atom is equal is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Electrons high-energy particles that have very little mass
Orbital a three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron.
Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have a different numbers of neutrons
Chemical Bond the attractive forces that hold atoms together
Covalent Bond when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Molecule the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state.
Ion An atom or molecule with electrical charge
Ionic Bond Positive and negative electrical charges attract each each other, the sodium ion and the chloride ion attract each other
Energy the ability to do work
Chemical Reaction one or more substance charge to produce one or more different substances
Reactants shown on the left side of the equation (before arrow)
Products this reaction are shown on the right side (after the arrow)
Metabolism the term used to describe all of the chemicals reaction that occur in an organism
Activation Energy the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Catalysts reduced the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place
Enzyme a protein or RNA molecule that speed that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
Redox reaction when electrons are transferred between atoms are known as oxidation reduction reactions or
Oxidation Reactions a reactant loses one or more electrons, thus becoming more positive in charge
Reduction reaction a reactant gains on or more election thus becoming more negative in charge
Polar Uneven distribution of charge
Hydrogen Bond the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom molecule with a or full negative charge
Cohesion An attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
Adhesion the attractive force between two particles of different substances (ex. water molecules and glass molecules)
Capillarity the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with solid
Solution a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance.
Solute a substance dissolved in the solvent
Solvent the substance in which the solute is dissolved
Concentration the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of of the solution
Saturated Solution one in which o more solute can dissolve
Aqueous Solution solutions in which water is the solvent
Hydroxide Ion OH- ion
Hydronium Ion H3O + ion
Base A solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions
pH scale A scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution
Buffers chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either acid or base added to a solution
Created by: Alexa Richardson