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chapters 2-3

matter anything that occupies space and has mass
mass quantity of matter an object has
element substances that cannot be broken down
atom the simplest part of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
nucleus makes up the bulk of the mass of the atom and consists of two kinds of subatomic particles
proton positively charged subatomic particle
neutron no charge subatomic particle
atomic number number of protons in and atom
mass number equal to the total number of protons and neutrons of the atom
electron negatively charged particle
orbital three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
isotope atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
compound made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions
chemical bond attractive forces that hold atoms together
covalent bond forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecule simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
ion atom or molecule with an electrical charge
iconic bond positive and negative electrical charges attract each other
energy the ability to do work
chemical reaction one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
reactant a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
product a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
metabolism term used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
activation energy amount of energy needed to start the reaction
catalyst reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place
enzyme a protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
redox reaction reactions in which electrons are transferred between atoms
oxidation reaction a reactant loses one or more electrons , thus becoming positive in charge
reduction reaction a reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming negative in charge
polar the charge is unevenly distributed
hydrogen bond the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial pr full negative charge
cohesion an attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
adhesion an attractive force between two particles of different substances
capillarity the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a surface
solution a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
solute a substance dissolved in the solvent
solvent the substance in which the solute is dissolved
concentration amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution
saturated solution no more solute can dissolve
aqueous solution solutions in which water is the solvent (universally important to living things)
hydroxide ion one molecule of water pulls apart another water molecule, or dissociates, into two ions of opposite charge
hydronium ion free H+ ion can react with another water molecule
acid when the number of hydronium ions in a solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions
base when a solution contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions
pH scale scientists have developed a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution
buffer chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution
organic compound made primarily of carbon atoms
functional group influence the characteristics of the molecules they compose and the chemical reactions the molecules undergo
monomer many carbon compounds are built up from smaller, simpler molecules
polymer a molecule that consists of repeated, linked units
macromolecule large polymers
condensation reaction monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction
hydrolysis water is used to break down a polymer
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy is available to cells in the form of certain compounds that store a large amount of energy in their overall structure
carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
monosaccharide monomer of a carbohydrate
disaccharide in living things, two monosaccharides can combine in a condensation reaction to form a double sugar
polysaccharide a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
protein organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
amino acid portions are formed from the linkage of monomers
peptide bond two amino acids form a covalent bond
polypeptide amino acids often form very long chains
enzyme RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts
substrate the reactant being catalyzed
active site folds in an enzyme
lipid large, non polar organic molecules
fatty acid unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
phospholipid have two, rather than three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached o them
nucleic acid very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities
ribonucleic acid (RNA) stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
nucleotide made of three main components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base
Created by: teddyaoprisch



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