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Chapter 2 and 3 vocabulary

Matter anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass the quantity of matter an object has
Elements substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
Atom the simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
Nucleus the central region that makes up the bulk of the mass of the atom and consists of two kinds of subatomic particles (proton and neutron)
Proton a positively charged subatomic particle
Neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge
atomic number the number of protons in an atom
mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Electrons negatively charged particles that have high energy and contain little mass
isotopes atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
orbital a three dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
compounds made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions
chemical bonds attractive forces that hold atoms together
covalent bond it forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecule the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
ion an atom or molecule with an electric charge
ionic bond when positive and negative electrical charges attract each other, the sodium ion and the chloride ion attract each other.
energy the ability to do work
chemical reaction one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
reactants shown on the left side of the equation; carbon dioxide and water (CO2+H2O=H2CO3)
products the answer of result of something (like H2CO3 in equation above)
metabolism describes the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
activation energy the amount of energy needed to start the reaction
catalysts a chemical substance that reduces the activation energy that is needed for a reaction to occur
enzyme a protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
redox reactions reactions in which electrons are transferred between atoms; a reactant loses one or more electrons, becoming more positive in charge
reduction reaction a reactant gains one or more electrons becoming more negative in charge
polar something that has an uneven distribution of charge
hydrogen bond the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
cohesion an attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
adhesion the attractive force between two particles of different substances
capillarity the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
solution a mixture where one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
solute a substance dissolved in the solvent
solvent the substance where the solute is dissolved
concentration the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution
saturated solution one in which no more solute can dissolve
aqueous solutions solutions where water is the solvent
hydroxide ion the OH- ion that can react with another water molecule
hydronium ion H3+ (water has an equal amount of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions)
acid a type of solution that is sour tasting and can be highly corrosive
base a solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions; has a bitter taste and feels slippery ( can be used to form soap)
pH scale a scale used for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution (Ranges from 0-14)
buffers chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution
organic compound a broad category that is mostly made of carbon atoms. Most of the matter in living things are made of this.
functional groups clusters of atoms in organic compounds; it influences the characteristics if the molecules they compose and the chemical reactions the molecules undergo
monomers small and simple molecules that can bond and form polymers
polymer a molecule that consists of of repeated, linked units
macromolecules large polymers (different types; lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids)
condensation reaction the chemical reaction in which monomers link to form polymers
hydrolysis water is used to break down a polymer (it is the reverse of condensation reaction)
adenosine triphosphate a compound that stores a lot of energy in the overall structure (ATP)
carbohydrates an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (some are used for energy or structural materials)
monosaccharide a monomer of a carbohydrate; it is a simple sugar that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1
disaccharide a double sugar formed by two monosaccharides that combined in a reaction rate
polysaccharide a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
proteins organic compounds composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
amino acids the forming of proteins from the linkage of monomers
peptide bond in a condensation reaction, two amino acids form a convalent bond
enzymes RNA or protein molecules that act as a biological catalysts (it is essential for cell function)
substrate the reactant that is catalyzed
active site the folds of an enzyme
lipids large, non polar organic molecules (doesn't dissolve in water)
triglycerides has three molecules of fatty acids joined to one molecule of the alcohol glycerol
fatty acids unbranched carbon chains that make up most of the lipids
phospholipids they have two fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
wax a type of structural lipid that contains a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
nucleic acids large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information to a cell
deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activity
ribonucleic acid (RNA stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
nucleotide made of three components: a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a ring shaped nitrogenous base
Created by: elizrhys



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