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Chapter 2&3

matter anything that occupies space and has mass
mass quantity of matter an object has
element substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
atom simplest particle of an element that retain all of the properties of that element
nucleus makes up the bulk of the mass of the atom and consists of two kinds of subatomic particles
proton makes up the nucleus, is positively charged
neutron makes up the nucleus, has no charge
atomic number the number of protons in an element
mass number equal to the total number of protons and neutrons of the atom
electron small negatively charged particles
orbital a three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
isotope atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons
compound made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions
chemical bond attractive forces that hold atoms together
covalent bond forms when two atoms share one of more pairs of electrons
molecule simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
ion an atom or molecule with an electrical charge
ionic bond the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
organic compound made primarily of carbon atoms
functional groups influence the characteristics of the molecules they compose and the chemical reactions the molecules undergo
monomer a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer
polymer molecule that consists of repeated, linked units
macromolecule large polymers
condensation reaction monomers link to form polymers through chemical reaction
hydrolysis water is used to break down a polymer
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) one type of compound that stores a large amount of energy in their overall structure
carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
monosaccharide a monomer of a carbohydrate
disaccharide two monosaccharides can combine in a condensation reaction to form a double sugar
polysaccharide complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
protein organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
amino acid proteins are formed from the linkage of monomers
peptide bond two amino acids form a covalent bond
polypeptide amino acids often form very long chains
enzyme RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts are essential for the functioning of any cell.
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
active site the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
lipid large, non polar organic molecules, do not dissolve in water
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities
ribonucleic acid (RNA) stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
nucleotide made of three main components: phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base
fatty acids unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
phospholipids have two, rather than three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
triglycerides a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and on glycerol molecule
wax type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
nucleic acids very large and complex molecules that store ad transfer important information in the cell
Created by: katherinewu



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