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Drug profiles

Names, Class, moa, dosages

QuestionAnswer
GENERIC NAME FOR ISOPTIN Verapamil
BRAND NAME for Verapamil Isoptin
CLASS For Verapamil Antiarrhythmic
MECHANISM OF ACTION of verapamil Calcium channel blocker. Class IV antiarrhythmic, prolongs av nodal refractory period, dilates coronary arteries, and arterioles.
Verapamil DOSE/ROUTE Adult 2.5-5mg IV bolus over 2 minutes. Repeat doses of 5-10mg may be given every 15-30 minutes to a maximum of 20mg.
Verapamil DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric 0.1-0.2 mg/kg/dose IV, IO push over 2 minutes. Repeat dose in 30 minutes if not effective. Don’t use in children <12 months
GENERIC NAME for Ventolin Albuterol
GENERIC NAME for Proventil Albuterol
BRAND NAME for Albuterol Proventil, ventolin
Albuterol CLASS Sympathomimetic, bronchodilator
Albuterol MECHANISM OF ACTION Selective beta 2 agonist that stimulates adrenergic receptors of the Sympathomimetic nervous system resulting in smooth muscle relaxation in the bronchial tree and peripheral vasculature.
Albuterol DOSE/ROUTE Adult 2.5mg. Over 10-15 minutes. MDI 1-2 inhalations with 5 minutes in between.
Albuterol DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric administer solution of 0.05-0.15 mg/kg/dose. May repeat every 20 min. up to 3 doses.
GENERIC NAME for Atropine None
BRAND NAME for Atropine Atropine
Atropine CLASS Anticholinergic agent
Atropine MECHANISM OF ACTION Parasympatholytic; Inhibits action of acetylcholine at postganglionic parasympathetic neuroeffector sites. Increases HR in life threatening bradyarrhythmias.
Atropine DOSE/ROUTE ADULT Asystole and Bradycardic PEA 1mg IV/IO push may repeat every 3-5 minutes up to 3 doses.
Atropine DOSE/ROUTE Adult Unstable Bradycardia 0.5 mg IV/IO every 3-5 minutes not to exceed 3mg total.
Atropine DOSE/ROUTE Adult Organophosphate Poisoning Extremely large doses (2-4mg or higher)
Atropine DOSE/ROUTE PEDEATRIC 0.02 mg/kg IV/IO push. May double for second dose. Minimum single dose is 0.1 mg.
Atropine DOSE/ROUTE Maximum single dose in child 0.5mg.
Atropine DOSE/ROUTE Child total dose 1mg.
Atropine DOSE/ROUTE Adolescent single dose 1mg and
Atropine DOSE/ROUTE Adolescent total dose 2mg.
GENERIC NAME for Benadryl Diphenhydramine
BRAND NAME for Diphenhydramine Benadryl
Diphenhydramine CLASS Antihistamine; anticholinergic
Diphenhydramine MECHANISM OF ACTION Blocks cellular histamine receptors; decreases vasodilation; decreases motion sickness. Reverses extrapyramidal reactions.
Diphenhydramine DOSE/ROUTE Adult 25-50mg IV, IM, or PO.
Diphenhydramine DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric 1-2 mg/kg IV. IO slowly, or IM. If given PO; 5mg/kg/24 hours
GENERIC NAME for Calcium Chloride None
BRAND NAME for Calcium Chloride Calcium Chloride
Calcium Chloride CLASS Electrolyte
Calcium Chloride MECHANISM OF ACTION Increases cardiac contractile state (positive inotropic effect), May enhance ventricular automaticity
Calcium Chloride DOSE/ROUTE Adult 500-1000mg (5-10 ml of a 10% solution) IV/IO push for Hyperkalemia and calcium channel blocker overdose. May be repeated as needed.
Calcium Chloride DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric 20mg/kg (.2 ml/kg) slow IV/IO push. Maximum 1 gram dose. May be repeated in 10 minutes.
GENERIC NAME for Activated charcoal None
BRAND NAME for Activated charcoal Activated charcoal
Activated charcoal CLASS Adsorbent
Activated charcoal MECHANISM OF ACTION Adsorbs toxic substances from the GI tract.
Activated charcoal DOSE/ROUTE Adult 1-2g/kg PO or NGT.
Activated charcoal DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric 1-2g/kg PO or NGT.
GENERIC NAME for D5W 5% dextrose in water
BRAND NAME for 5% dextrose in water D5W
D5W CLASS Hypotonic dextrose-containing solution
D5W MECHANISM OF ACTION D5W provides nutrients in the form of dextrose as well as free water.
D5W DOSE/ROUTE D5W is usually administered through a minidrip (60 drops/ml) set at a rate of “to keep open” (TKO)
GENERIC NAME Decadron Dexamethasone sodium phosphate
GENERIC NAME Hexadrol Dexamethasone sodium phosphate
BRAND NAME for Dexamethasone sodium phosphate Decadron, Hexadrol
Decadron CLASS Corticosteroid
Decadron MECHANISM OF ACTION Suppresses acute and chronic inflammation. Immunosuppressive effects.
Decadron DOSE/ROUTE Adult 10-100mg IV (1mg/kg slow IV bolus)
Decadron DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric 0.25-1mg/kg/dose IV, IO, IM
GENERIC NAME for Dextrose 50% Dextrose 50%, D50
BRAND NAME for Dextrose 50% Dextrose 50%, D50
Dextrose 50% CLASS Carbohydrate, hyperglycemic
Dextrose 50% MECHANISM OF ACTION Aerobic metabolic substrate (ATP production). Reverses CNS effects of hypoglycemia by rapidly increasing serum glucose levels. Provides short-term osmotic diuresis.
Dextrose 50% DOSE/ROUTE ADULT Hypoglycemia 25-100 ml of D50 (12.5-50 Gm, 2 to 2 amps)
Dextrose 50% DOSE/ROUTE ADULT altered level of consciousness 25-100 ml of D50 (12.5-50 Gm, 2 to 2 amps)
Dextrose 50% DOSE/ROUTE ADULT seizures of unknown etiology 25-100 ml of D50 (12.5-50 Gm, 2 to 2 amps) IV
Dextrose 50% DOSE/ROUTE ADULT Hyperkalemia 50 Gm of Dextrose IV total may be given over 1 hour.
Dextrose 50% DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric (14 yrs and below includes infant) Administer 0.5 - 1 Gm/kg of a dextrose 10% solution; recommended to give slowly over a 20 minute period
GENERIC NAME for Valium Diazepam
BRAND NAME for Diazepam Valium
Valium CLASS Benzodiazepine, sedative hypnotic, anticonvulsant
Valium MECHANISM OF ACTION Potentiates effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters. Raises seizure threshold. Induces amnesia and sedation.
Valium DOSE/ROUTE Adult, seizure activity 5-10mg IV q 10-15 minutes prn. Max dose 30mg.
Valium DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric, seizure activity 0.2-0.5mg slowly q 2-5 minutes up to 5mg. max dose 10mg/kg.
Valium DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric, rectally 0.5 mg/kg via 2’’ rectal catheter and flush with 2-3ml of air after administration.
Valium DOSE/ROUTE Adult, cardioversion sedation 5-15mg IV over 5-10 minutes prior to cardioversion.
GENERIC NAME for Cardizem DILTIAZEM
BRAND NAME for DILTIAZEM Cardizem
Cardizem CLASS Calcium Channel Blocker, Calcium antagonist
Cardizem MECHANISM OF ACTION slows SA and AV conduction and dilates coronary and peripheral arteries and arterioles. Slows the vent. rate associated with a-fib, a-flutter,& reduces coronary and peripheral vascular resistance.
Cardizem DOSE/ROUTE Adult Initial 0.25 mg/kg IVP (usually 20 mg) administered over 2 minutes
Cardizem DOSE/ROUTE Adult repeat in 15 minutes 0.35 mg/kg IVP administered over 2 minutes
Cardizem DOSE/ROUTE Adult Maintenance infusion 5.0 to 15 mg/hr
Cardizem DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric Dosage The safety of this drug for use in children has not been established.
GENERIC NAME for Adrenalin Epinephrine
BRAND NAME for Epinephrine Adrenalin
Epinephrine CLASS Sympathomimetic
Epinephrine MECHANISM OF ACTION Direct acting alpha and beta-agonist. Alpha; Vasoconstriction. Beta-1; Positive inotropic, chronotropic, and dromtropic effects. Beta-2 bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and dilation of skeletal vasculature.
Epinephrine DOSE/ROUTE Adult Mild allergic reactions and asthma 0.3-0.5 mg ?(0.3-0.5ml of 1;1000) SC.
Epinephrine DOSE/ROUTE Adult Anaphylaxis 0.1mg (1ml of 1;10,000) IV/IO over 5 minutes.
Epinephrine DOSE/ROUTE Adult Cardiac arrest IV/IO dose 1 mg (10ml of 1;10,000 solution) every 3-5 minutes during resuscitation. Follow each dose with 20 mL flush and elevate arm for 10-20 secs.
Epinephrine DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric Mild allergic reactions and asthma 0.01 mg/kg of 1;1,000 solution SC.
Epinephrine DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric Cardiac arrest IV/IO dose 0.01 mg/kg of 1;10,000 solution every 3-5 minutes during arrest.
GENERIC NAME for ETOMIDATE ETOMIDATE
BRAND NAME for ETOMIDATE none
ETOMIDATE CLASS Sedative/hypnotic agent
ETOMIDATE MECHANISM OF ACTION Produces hypnosis rapidly causing CNS depression and anesthesia. No analgesic effect
ETOMIDATE DOSE/ROUTE ADULT 0.3 mg/kg IV over 30-60 seconds
GENERIC NAME for Glucagon None
BRAND NAME for Glucagon Glucagon
Glucagon CLASS Hyperglycemic agent, pancreatic hormone, insulin antagonist
Glucagon MECHANISM OF ACTION Increases blood glucose level by stimulating glycogenolysis. Unknown mechanism of stabilizing cardiac rhythm in beta blocker overdose. Minimal positive inotropic and chronotropic effect. Decreases GI motility and secretions.
Glucagon DOSE/ROUTE Adult, Hypoglycemia 0.5-1mg IM. May repeat in 7-10 minutes.
Glucagon DOSE/ROUTE Adult, Calcium channel blocker or beta blocker overdose 3mg initially, followed by an infusion at 3mg/hr as necessary.
Glucagon DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric, hypoglycemia 0.5-1mg IM.
Glucagon DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric, calcium channel blocker and beta blocker overdose Not recommended.
GENERIC NAME for Hartman’s solution Lactated Ringers
BRAND NAME for Lactated Ringers Hartman’s solution
Lactated Ringers CLASS Isotonic Crystalloid solution
Lactated Ringers MECHANISM OF ACTION Lactated ringers replaces water and electrolytes
Lactated Ringers DOSE/ROUTE Hypovolemic shock. Titrate according to patients physiologic response
GENERIC NAME for Atrovent IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE
BRAND NAME for IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE Atrovent
Atrovent CLASS anticholinergic, bronchodilator
Atrovent MECHANISM OF ACTION Anticholinergic (parasympatholytic) agent appears to inhibit vagally-mediated reflexes by antagonizing the action of acetylcholine, the transmitter released from the vagal nerve.
Atrovent DOSE/ROUTE Give 500 mcg in 2.5 ml normal saline (1 unit dose vial)
GENERIC NAME for Magnesium Sulfate None
BRAND NAME for Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium Sulfate
Magnesium Sulfate CLASS Electrolyte
Magnesium Sulfate MECHANISM OF ACTION Reduces striated muscle contractions and blocks peripheral neuromuscular transmission, manages seizures in toxemia of pregnancy, induces uterine relaxation, can cause bronchodilation after beta agonists and anticholinergics have been used.
Magnesium Sulfate DOSE/ROUTE Adult, Seizure activity associated with pregnancy 1-4g IV/IO over 3 minutes. Maximum dose of 40g per day.
Magnesium Sulfate DOSE/ROUTE Adult, Cardiac arrest due to hypomagnesemia or torsade de pointes 1-2g diluted in 10ml of D5W IV/IO over 5-20 minutes.
Magnesium Sulfate DOSE/ROUTE Adult, Torsade de pointes with a pulse or AMI with Hypomagnesemia Loading dose of 1-2g mixed in 50-100 ml in D5W over 5-60 minutes IV.
Magnesium Sulfate DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric, IV/IO infusion 25-50 mg/kg (max dose 2g) over 10-20 minutes. Faster for torsade de pointes.
Magnesium Sulfate DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric, for asthma 25-50mg/kg over 10-20 minutes. Max dose 2g
GENERIC NAME for Solu-Medrol Methylprednisolone
BRAND NAME for Methylprednisolone Solu-Medrol
Solu-Medrol CLASS Anti-inflammatory Glucocorticoid
Solu-Medrol MECHANISM OF ACTION Synthetic corticosteroid that suppresses acute and chronic inflammation; Potentiates vascular smooth muscle relaxation by beta-adrenergic agonist.
Solu-Medrol DOSE/ROUTE Adult, Acute spinal cord injury 30mg/kg IV over 30 minutes followed by an infusion.
Solu-Medrol DOSE/ROUTE Adult asthma and COPD 1-2mg/kg IV.
Solu-Medrol DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric, Acute spinal cord injury 30mg/kg IV over 30 minutes followed by an infusion.
Solu-Medrol DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric asthma and COPD 1-2mg/kg IV.
GENERIC NAME for Astramorph/pf Morphine Sulfate
BRAND NAME for Morphine Sulfate Astramorph/pf
Morphine Sulfate CLASS Opioid analgesic (schedule II narcotic)
Morphine Sulfate MECHANISM OF ACTION Alleviates pain, Suppresses fear and anxiety centers in brain; depresses respiratory rate, increases peripheral venous capacitance and decreases venous return, decreases preload and after load, which decrease myocardial oxygen demand.
Morphine Sulfate DOSE/ROUTE Adult Initial dose 2-4 mg IV (over 1-5 minutes) every 5-30 minutes.
Morphine Sulfate DOSE/ROUTE Adult Repeat dose 2-8 mg at 5-15 minute intervals.
Morphine Sulfate DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric .1-.2 mg/kg per dose via IV. IO. IM, or SC; Maximum dose of 5mg.
GENERIC NAME for Neo-synephrine PHENYLEPHRINE NASAL SPRAY 0.5%
BRAND NAME for PHENYLEPHRINE NASAL SPRAY 0.5% Neo-synephrine Nasal Spray 0.5%
Neo-synephrine CLASS Topical vasoconstrictor
Neo-synephrine MECHANISM OF ACTION Stimulates a receptors in the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa which causes their constriction and thereby decreases the risk of nasal bleeding.
Neo-synephrine DOSE/ROUTE ADULTS 2-4 sprays in each nostril before attempting tube insertion
Neo-synephrine PEDS None
GENERIC NAME for Levophed Norepinephrine
BRAND NAME for Norepinephrine Levophed, Levarterenol
Levophed CLASS Sympathomimetic
Levophed MECHANISM OF ACTION Potent alpha-agonist resulting in intense vasoconstriction; Positive chronotropic and increased Inotropic effect (from 10% beta effects), with increased cardiac output.
Levophed DOSE/ROUTE ADULT Dilute 8mg in 500ml of D5W.
Levophed DOSE/ROUTE ADULT In fuse by IV piggyback 0.5-1.0 mcg/min, titrated to improve blood pressure( up to 30mcg/min).
Levophed DOSE/ROUTE PEDIATRIC 0.1-1.0 mcg/min IV infusion titrated to patients response
GENERIC NAME for Normal Saline Sodium Chloride
BRAND NAME for Sodium Chloride Normal Saline
Normal Saline CLASS Isotonic crystalloid
Normal Saline MECHANISM OF ACTION Normal saline replaces water and electrolytes
Normal Saline DOSE/ROUTE The specific situation being treated will dictate the rate of administration. In severe heat stroke, DKA, and fresh water drowning,give quite rapidly. In other cases it is advisable to administer the fluid at moderate rate ( for example, 100ml/h)
GENERIC NAME for Oxygen None
BRAND NAME for Oxygen Oxygen
Oxygen CLASS Naturally occurring atmospheric gas
Oxygen MECHANISM OF ACTION Reverses Hypoxemia
Oxygen DOSE/ROUTE Adult Carbon monoxide poisoning and cardiac arrest; 100%. Hypoxemia 10-15 L/min via non-rebreather.
Oxygen DOSE/ROUTE Adult COPD 1-6L/min via nasal cannula or 28-35% Venturi mask.
Oxygen DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric 1-6L/min via nasal cannula or 28-35% Venturi mask. Except for neonate
GENERIC NAME for Anectine Succinylcholine
BRAND NAME for Succinylcholine Anectine
Succinylcholine CLASS Depolarizing paralyzing agent
Succinylcholine MECHANISM OF ACTION Binds to the receptors for acetylcholine
Succinylcholine DOSE/ROUTE ADULT 1-2mg/kg rapid IV. Repeat once if needed.
GENERIC NAME for Thiamine None
BRAND NAME for Thiamine Thiamine
Thiamine CLASS Vitamin B1
Thiamine MECHANISM OF ACTION Combines with ATP to form thiamine pyrophosphate coenzyme, a necessary component for carbohydrate metabolism. The brain is extremely sensitive to thiamine deficiency.
Thiamine DOSE/ROUTE Adult 100mg slow IV, or IM
Thiamine DOSE/ROUTE Pediatric 10-25mg slow IV, or IM
Succinylcholine DOSE/ROUTE PEDIATRIC 1-1.5 mg/kg rapid IV/IO. Repeat once if needed.
Created by: klindley