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Modern Biology S1

Modern Biology Chapter 1 Section 1

Biology The study of life
Organization The high degree of order within an organism`s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world
Cell The smallest unit that can preform all life processes
Unicellular an organism that consists of a single cell
multicellular a tissue, organ, or organism that is made of many cells
organs a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
tissues group of cells that have similar abilities to allow the organs to function
organelles tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive
biological molecules chemical compounds that provide physical that bring about movement, energy use, and other cellular functions
homeostasis maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environment conditions are constantly changing
metabolism the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment
cell division the formation of two cells from one existing cell
development the process by which an organism becomes mature
reproduction organisms produce more organisms like themselves
gene short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for a single trait of an organism
domains major subdivisions of all organisms
kingdoms another system of grouping organisms; divides all life into 6 major categories
ecology branch of biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and with the environment
ecosystems communities of living species in their physical environments
evolution descent with modification
natural selection organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive in and reproduce successfully, than those without these traits
adaptations traits that improve an individuals ability to survive
scientific method the organized approach to learn how the natural world works
observation the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question
hypothesis a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions
prediction a statement that forecasts what would happen in a test situation if the hypothesis were true
experiment used to test a hypothesis and its predictions
control group provides a normal standard which a biologist can compare results of the experimental group
experimental group in an experiment a group that is identical to the control group except for one factor
independent variable in an experiment the factor that is deliberately manipulated
dependent variable in an experiment the factor that changes as a result of manipulation of one or more other factors
theory an explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation experimentation or reasoning that is supported by a large quantity of evidence and doesn't conflict with any experimental results or observations
peer review the process in which experts in a given field examine the results of a scientists study before that study is accepted for publication
compound light microscope a microscope that uses light to illuminate a specimen that is then magnified by two lenses
eyepiece (ocular lenses) the part of a microscope the magnifies an image usually ten times
objective lens the part sofa compound light microscope that is located directly above the specimen that magnifies
stage a platform of a compound light microscope that supports the slide holding the specimen
light source the source of light
magnification the increase of an objects apparent size by using lenses of mirrors
nose piece the part of a compound light microscope that holds the objective in place above the specimen
resolution in microscopes the ability to form images in fine detail
scanning electron microscope a microscope that produces an enlarged three dimensional image of an object by using a beam of electrons rather than light
transmission electron a microscope that transmits a beam of electrons through a very thing sliced specimen
microscope a tool used to look at very small things
metric system a system for measuring
base unit one of the fundamental units of measuring length weight mass time and other quantities
Created by: havensk2020



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