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Rad Imag. 2

Ch 1-7

Matter is measured in kilograms
The fundamental building blocks of matter are atoms and molecules
The formula ___ is the basis for the theory that led to nuclear power E-MC^2
Electromagnetic energy includes radiowaves, microwaves, ultraviolet, infrared, visible light, xray, gamma
A moving object has kinetic energy
The removal of an electron from an atom is called ionization
Ionizing radiation is capable of ___ electrons from atoms as it passes through matter removing
Xray are forms of electromagnetic energy
_____ exposure is the biggest source of man-made radiation diagnostic xray
We are exposed to 20-90 mR/yr of ionizing radiation from natural environment in the U.S.
The basic quantities measured in mechanics are mass, length, time
Radiation exposure is measured in grays
Today, radiology is considered a safe occupation because of elective radiation protection
ALARA means as low as reasonably achievable
Xray filtration is used to absorb low energy xrays
The term atom was first used by the Greeks
First person to describe an element as being composed of identical atoms was John Dalton
The smallest particle that has the properties of an element is an atom
A positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons in well-defined orbits is the Bohr model of the atom
The fundamental particles of an atom are the neutrons, protons, electrons
The chemical element is determined by the number of protons in the atom
An atom in a normal state has an electrical charge of zero; neutral
The binding energies or energy levels of electrons are represented by their shells
Atoms with the same number of protons as another, but a different number of neutrons is an isotope
When atoms of various elements combine they form molecules
The losses or gain of one of more electrons is an ionization
The number of electrons in an electron shell is calculated with the formula 2n^2
A neutral atom has the same number of protons and electrons
The innermost electron shell is symbolized by the letter K
The atomic number of an element is symbolized by the letter Z
The atomic number equals the number of protons in the atom
The difference between xrays and gamma rays is their origin
The alpha particle is the least penetrating form of particulates/particles
The properties of photons are frequency, wavelength, velocity, and amplitude
The smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic radiation is a photon
The velocity of all electromagnetic radiation is 3*10^8 m/s
The rate of the rise and fall of a sine wave is called frequency
The ___ of electromagnetic radiation is constant velocity
If the wavelength of a beam of electromagnetic radiation increases by a factor of 2, the frequency must decrease by half
The intensity of radiation decrease in _______ to the square of the distance of the object from the source inverse proportion
The reduction of radiation intensity due to scattering and absorption is called attenuation
The intensity of radiation on an object is reduced with distance because the radiation is spread out over a greater area
If intensity of light from a flashlight is 4 millilumens (m/m) at 3 ft using the inverse square law, what will it be at 6 ft? I millilumen
The diagnostic range of xray energy is 30-150 kVp
The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency
Xray are usually identified by their energy (kVp)
The lowest energy range on the electromagnetic spectrum is radiowaves
Gamma rays are produced in the nucleus of the atom
Photons with the highest frequencies have the shortest wavelengths
The smallest unit of electrical charge is the electron
Electrification occurs only through the movement of electrons only
A battery is a source of direct current
When an electrical potential (voltage) is applied to a conductor, both a current and a magnetic are produced
An alternating(AC) current is represented by a sinusoidal line
A flashlight is battery operated, and is any example of using direct current
Alternating current is produced by a generator
Ohm's law formula is V=IR
Electrical power is measured in watts
Rubber and glass are ____ because they do not conduct electricity insulators
When a group of dipoles are aligned, they create a magnetic domain
In the United States, alternating current goes through a complete cycle every 1/60 second
The Si unit of magnetic field strength is the tesla
Ferromagnetic material can be made magnetic when placed in an external magnetic field
Like magnets poles _____ and unlike magnetic poles repel; attract
Water is a _____ (type of magnetic material) diamagnetic
The magnetic intensity of an electromagnetic is greatly increased by the addition of an iron core
The three main parts of an xray imaging system are the operating console, high-voltage generator, tube
The operating console contains circuits that are low voltage only
Variation in power distribution to xray machine are corrected by line voltage compensators
The first component in the xray circuit is the autotransformer
The autotransformer has one winding
The ____ circuit provides electrons for the xray tube. filament
The most accurate type of times is the electronic timer
The automatic exposure control (AEC) terminates the exposure when sufficient radiation reaches the image receptor
The step up transformer increases voltage 500-1000 times
A diode allows electrons to flow from cathode to anode
With half-wave rectification the current flows through the xray tube during the _____ part of the cycle positive
Full-wave rectified, three-phase units provide an xray beam at ___ pulses per second 360
Voltage across the xray tube is most constant with high voltage generators
Most mammography units operate with high frequency generators
A single-phase waveform has ______ ripple 100%
The principle disadvantage of three-phase equipment is cost
The xray generator with the lowest power rating is the _____ imaging system single phase
The most widely used support structure of the xray tube is the ceiling support system
_____ coating within the tube can cause arcing tungsten
The negative side of the xray tube is the cathode
The cathode holds the filament
The most common cause of tube failure is tungsten vaporization
The filament is made of tungsten
_____ emission at the filament creates a space charge thermonic
The ___ motor works by electromagnetic induction to turn the anode stator
When electron bombard the target ___ of their energy is converted to heat. 99%
The target of the rotating anode is usually coated with a tungsten alloy
The ___ is the source of radiation in the xray tube focal spot
The size of the effective ___ decreases as the target angle decreases focal spot
High capacity tube rotors revolve at 10,000 rpm
The heel effect causes xray intensity to be greater on the ___side of the tube cathode
The ___ side of the tube should be over the thicker part of the patient because of the heel node effect cathode
Tube ____ can occur from long exposures failure
The stators are ___ the glass envelope outside
___ or ___ radiation is produced from rebounding electrons extrafocus; off-focus
The heel is caused by the ___ of the anode angle
The effective focal spot size is smaller than the actual focal spot
Localized ___ on the anode target can occur from a single excessive exposure pitting
Projectile electrons travel from the filament to the anode
During an exposure, most of the kinetic energy of the projectile electrons is converted to heat
the production of heat at the anode is directly proportional to tube current
The efficiency of xray production increases as kVp increases
Approximately ___ of kinetic energy of the electrons is converted to xrays at the target 1%
Electrons interaction at the inner-shell of the target atoms produce characteristic radiation
The useful characteristic xrays from tungsten are k shell xrays
Characteristic K-shell xrays have an effective energy of 57 keV
Most of the xrays produced at the target are bremsstrahlung
At 55kVp ___ of the xrays produced are bremsstrahlung 100%
Bremsstrahlung xrays are produced by slowing electrons at the nucleus
Characteristic xrays are produced by released binding energy
The amplitude of the emission spectrum is lower with a ___ generator than with a three-phase generator single phase
A 15% increasing kVp is equivalent to doubling the mAs