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NC #4

Concepts of Human Development

QuestionAnswer
Identify the basic principles of development Physical growth, psychosocial, cognitive, & moral
Define Psychosocial development Erikson identified stages of development that are built on a foundation of genetics, home life, social norms & cultural values
Define Cognitive development Piaget believes understanding occurs in sudden leaps from early in the life span until adolescence, rather than in smooth, regular intervals
Define moral development Kohlberg links moral reasoning to socialization, rather than simply maturation
What are the factors that influence human development Biological & heredity, environmental & social factors
Describe the physical attributes of infants Change rapidly, reflexes (such as rooting, sucking, step, grasp & startle) are present in infants & diminish in the 1st yr, ht. increases 6" in 1st 6mos., another 4-6" by 1st. yr, first teeth and crawling around 7mos.
At what approximate age do infants start to walk? 9 months
Describe the physical attributes of a toddler Gain 5-10lb/yr., ht. increases about 3"/yr. Toddlers are approx. 1/2 their adult ht. by 2yrs, gross motor skills developing, fine motor skills start, @ 1yr. head is approx. 47cm.
At what age is the total # of brain cells of the adult brain formed? 1yr; and only increase in size after that
At what age is complete brain growth complete? 10
Describe physical attributes of a preschooler Gains about 5lbs/yr, ht. increases 2"/yr, Eustachian tubes are horizontal & short causing ear infections to be common, gross motor skills improve with practice, fine motor skills take practice to perfect, require a nap mid-day & 8hrs sleep @ night
Describe physical attributes of a school aged child? Ht. increases about 1-2 1/2"/yr, legs are the longest part of the body, 1st permanent teeth come in around age 6
What are the leading causes of death among school aged children? Accidents
Describe the physical attributes of adolescence Begins @ puberty, final 20%-50% of adult ht. is gained, age of onset growth spurt influences expected ht., wt. before growth spurt approx. 50% of projected adult wt. 2nd & 3rd molars errupt
At what age does a female adolescence have growth spurt? 12-14
At what age does a male adolescence have growth spurt? 14-16
What is more rapid than muscle growth in an adolescence? Bone growth
What is the age range for young adults? 20-40
Describe the physical attributes of a young adult Weight gain averages 1lb/yr from 20-50, full adult ht. is reached during early 20's, after age 25 ht. begins to slowly decrease, 20's is the time of greatest bone strength
When does the nervous system reach its peak? 20's & is fully developed around age 25
At what age does the brain begin to decrease in size? 30
How much does the heart strength decrease in the 20's? 1%/yr
What is the age range for middle-aged adults? 40-65
What reproductive changes does a female encounter during 40's-50's? Reduction of estrogen, women with no menstrual flow for 1yr. are officially in menopause
What reproductive changes does a male have after his 50's? Prostate problems increase
What is the age range for older adults? >65
What declines in older adults, but is still important to them? Sex drive
How do biological & hereditary factors affect physical development? Height & weight depend on heredity & environmental issues
How do environmental factors affect physical development? Nutrition, air, toxins, exposure
What social factors affect physical development? Social support systems, culture, economic factors
According to Erikson, what is the infant stage & goals? Basic trust vs. mistrust / Bond with parents
According to Erikson, what is the toddler stage, goals & ages? 1-3yrs, Autonomy vs. shame / achieve a sense of self control
According to Erikson, what is the school aged stage, goals & ages? 4-6yrs, Initiative vs. guilt / act independently
According to Erikson, what is the adolescence stage, goals & ages? 12-19, Identity vs. role confusion / affirm self identity & sexuality
According to Erikson, what is the young adult stage, goals & ages? 20-44, Intimacy vs. isolation / find intimate companion, often have family, become established in the community
According to Erikson, what is the middle-aged stage, goals & ages? 45-65, Generaltivity vs. stagnation / contributing to society through productive & useful living
According to Erikson, what is the older adult stage, goals & ages? >65, Ego integrity vs. despair / Review life's accomplishments
According to Erikson, ________ ________ must be completed before moving on to the next stage Each stage
What are the biological & hereditary factors that influence psychosocial development? Physical, ageing, & illness
What are the environmental factors that influence psychosocial development? Exposure to toxins, irritants, allergens, and gasses
What are the social factors that influence psychosocial development? Parental/caregiver influence, emotional expressions or repressions, roles & responsibility
What are Piagets' stages & ages of cognitive development? Sensorimotor (birth-2yrs), Preoperational (2-6yrs), Preconceptual (2-4yrs), Intuitive (4-7yrs), Concrete Operational (7-11yrs), Formal Operational (12+yrs)
Define Sensorimotor Birth-2yrs - Stage of action rather than thought about actions
Define Preoperational 2-6yrs - Internal & rigid rather than flexible. Display egocentric thinking & interpret information literally (includes the Preconceptual (2-4) & Intuitive (4-7) stages)
Define Concrete Operational 7-11yrs - The internalization of thoughts at this stage produces actual behaviors
Define Formal Operational 12+yrs - Use of systematic, complex thought processes;
What is the highest cognitive level? Formal Operational
What is the biological & hereditary factor that affect cognitive development? Mental illness
What are the environmental factors that affect cognitive development? Oxygen deprivation
What are the social factors that affect cognitive development? Shifts in role or relationship patterns, sensory or social deprivation, parental absence, rejection or lack of involvement, psychosocial or physical trauma
What are Kohlbergs' stages of moral development? Preconventional reasoning, Conventional reasoning, & Postconvetional reasoning
What does Kohlberg believe to be the biggest influence on moral development Socialization
Who theorized about Physical development? Havinghurst
Who theorized about Psychosocial development? Erikson
Who theorized about Cognitive development? Piaget
Who theorized about Moral development? Kohlberg
What is the infant stage of psychosocial development? Basic trust vs. mistrust
What is the preschool stage of psychosocial development? Initiative vs. guilt
What is the school age stage of psychosocial development? Industry vs. inferiority
What is the adolescence stage of psychosocial development? Identity vs. role confusion
What is young adult stage of psychosocial development? Intimacy vs. isolation
What is the middle-age stage of psychosocial development? Generativity vs. Isolation
What is older adult stage of psychosocial development? Ego integrity vs. despair
A nurse identifies that an older adult is successfully resolving conflict of integrity vs. despair, which ability most supports this conclusion? Adjusting to the change in social roles
Which age group will have greatest individual differences in appearance and behavior? Middle age adults
A nursing home resident reminisces about past life events, which stage of psychosocial development is this? Ego Integrity vs. Despair
A nurse identifies that a patient in middle adulthood is experiencing a developmental crisis, which behavior does this support? Inability to achieve a felling of success
Which psychodynamic theorist believed that 10yr old children gain pleasure from accomplishments? Erik Erikson
At what age do children first recognize death is irreversible, universal, and natural? 9
Which comment demonstrates ageism, "He is 75 and: Has outlived is usefulness
Which age group should a nurse include that has the highest energy expenditure and nutritional requirements? First year of life
Created by: tandkhopkins