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Communication Key Terms

Fovea point on the retina with the greatest acuity and the greatest number of cone cells
Incus one of three small bones in the middle ear
Ion a charged atom or group of atoms
Iris coloured part of the eye, controls the amount of light entering the eye
Schwann Cells a type of cell that produces the myelin sheath around nerve cells
Sclera tough white coating in the eye
Sex-inked a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes
Sound shadow the acoustic shadow cast by the head, used in the localisation of sound
dendrite extension of a neurone that transmits the signal towards the cell body.
effector a muscle or gland that produces a response to a stimulus
Spike graphical interpretation of the firing of a neurone
Stapes the third bone in the middle ear, part of the ossicles
Stereocilia hair-like extensions on hair cells that contact the tectorial membrane and send an impulse to the brain
Stereoscopic three dimensional view using the overlapping field of view from two eyes
Stimuli an external message that excites a receptor
Stimulus singular of stimuli
Labyrinth organ in the inner ear that is responsible for balance
Lateral line a visible line along the head and body of fish and amphibians, senses low frequency sound
Malleus first of three small bones in the middle ear
Mechanoreceptors a receptor that responds to sound, pressure, touch, and position
Optic Nerve nerve that leaves the retina of the eye
Otolith calcareous mass found in the ear of some vertebrates, important in sound perception in fish
Oval window the connecting plate between the middle ear and inner ear
Peripheral on the outer side
Pheromones chemicals released as a signal
Receptors detect changes in the environment
Recessive not expressed in the phenotype unless it is the only gene present
Refraction bending of light
Refractory period the time taken for a neurone to recover after firing
Accomodation changing the focus in the eye by changing the shape of the lens using the ciliary muscles
Action potential reversal of voltage across a nerve membrane caused by the movement of sodium and potassium ions
Acuity sharpness of vision
Aqueous humour transparent fluid that lies between the cornea and the lens
Axon an extension on a neurone that takes the impulse away from the cell body
Bioncular involving the use of two eyes with overlapping field of view resulting in depth perception
Bioluminescence the production of light by living organisms
Blind spot the place on the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye, contains no light sensitive cells
Cornea transparent layer at the front of the eye that refracts incoming light
Conjunctiva membrane lining the outer layer of the eye
Cone Cell light sensitive cell found on the retina of the eye, important in color perception
Color Blind inability to detect particular colors caused by a lack of specific color cone cells
Ciliary Muscles small muscles attached to the lens that change the shape of the lens to focus on near and far objects
Ciliary Body contains suspensory ligaments and the ciliary muscles in the eye
Choroid a layer between the sclera and retina
Cell Body part of the neurone that contains the nucleus and other organelles
Cataract a clouding of the eye's lens
Photoreceptor an organ or cell, sensitive to light
Pitch function of the frequency of a wave, high or low sounds have high or low pitch
Polarisation separation of positive and negative ions
Pupil the opening in the iris of the eye
Receptors detect changes in the environment
Recessive not expressed in the phenotype unless it is the only gene present
Refraction bending of light
Refractory Period the time taken for a neurone to recover after firing
Resting Potential the normal state of neurone, negatively charges internally
Retina light sensitive lining on the back of the eye
Rhodopsin Light sensitive pigment found in rod cells
Rod Cells light sensitive cells especially useful for the detection of light
Schwann Cells a type of cell that produces the myelin sheath around nerve cells
Created by: MCEBiology



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