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N113 Reproduction

N113 - Female Reproduction Cycle

QuestionAnswer
Follicular phase Approximately days 1-14, length varies according to woman's cycle. Egg is maturing, estrogen is the major hormone during this part of the cycle.
Luteal phase Always 14 days long. Progesterone is the major hormone during this part of the cycle.
Estrogen and progesterone drops The lining of the uterus is shedding - you have your period.
Low levels of estrogen and progesterone triggers The low levels trigger the pituitary gland to secrete FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).
Graffian Follicle It is the developing egg, as it matures, it secretes estrogen.
Increasing levels of estrogen triggers This triggers the release of LH (luteinizing hormones) from the pituitary and suppresses FSH.
Luteinizing hormone Stimulates further maturation of the follicle which continues to secrete estrogen.
Increase in estrogen causes It causes a new endometrial surface layer to develop and cervical mucus increases and changes consistency to be more receptive to sperm. It becomes thin, clear and watery, pH changes occur also.
Estrogen & LH peaks This signifies the maturation of the follicle and the drop in these two stimulate ovulation.
Ovulation occurs Around day 14 +/- 2 days before the start of the next period.
During ovulation The graffian follicle ruptures and the ovum passes into the abdominal cavity. Occasionally some bleeding occurs into the abdomen producing transient abdominal pain called mittelschmerz.
Fertilization occurs In the fallopian tube before the ovum is transported to the uterus.
Body temperature during ovulation The body temp drops .1 to .2 just before ovulation and increases .7 to .8 with in 24 hours of ovulation.The temp increase is due to progesterone and will remain increased for the remainder of the cycle.
Corpus luteum It is the remaining cells of the follicle that remain in the ovary. It produces progesterone.
Progesterone It decreases motility and contractility of the uterus (smooth muscle), preparing it for implantation of a fertilized ovum.
Fertilized egg secretes HCG (human ghorionic gonadotrophin) which maintains the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum continues to secrete progesterone, which prevents the shedding of the uterine lining.
Corpus luteum stops producing progesterone When the placenta is mature enough to secrete the progesterone on its own - end of 1st trimester.
Egg viability 24 hours
Sperm viability 72 hours
When a sperm penetrates the ovum Cellular changes occur that prevents other sperm from penetrating the ovum.
Created by: jrb265