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BCBA TERMS 2

Content Area 3

QuestionAnswer
Abative effect When a stimulus causes an immediate weakening of a response. Term applies to the effect of an S-delta or SDP.
Abolishing Operations "1. Decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus 2. Decreases the strength of the behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past"
Adventitious Reinforcement accidental reinforcement, results in superstitious behavior. In this kind of reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it. Ex: Pitcher wears socks and has good game, then wears sock at all games.
Antecedent Event before the behavior
Audience The individual(s) who provides the reinforcement for VB. The audience is an SD for the VB but does not determine the specific form.
Avoidance behavior Avoidance behavior that is reinforced by the postponement or avoidance of an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer).
Behavior Interaction of a person and his/her environment. Action of the muscles and/or glands
Behavior contrast: negative When a treated behavior increases, and the same untreated behavior in another situation decreases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in multiple schedules.
Behavior contrast: positive When a treated behavior decreases (e.g., ext or punishment), and the same untreated behavior in another situation increases. In the laboratory, contrast is studied in multiple schedules.
Categories of functions "Positive reinforcement: Automatic and Socially mediated Negative reinforcement: Automatic and socially mediated"
COD Change over delay - when a concurrent superstition occurs, a delay is programmed after the first behavior occurs to eliminate the superstition.
Concurrent superstition When a behavior (e.g., tantrum) is maintained by the reinforcer for another behavior (e.g., mand for food). Occurs when the 2 behaviors occur close in time.
Conditioned Motivative Operations (CMO) Have the same 2 effects that motivative operations have, but are due to a conditioning history
Conditioned Reinforcer (punisher) A consequence that increases (or decreases) the rate of behavior because it has been paired with another reinforcer (or punisher)
Consequence Event that occurs after the behavior
Contingency Shaped Behavior Behavior that occurs because it has resulted from direct exposure to contingencies.
CR Conditioned Response – a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
CS Conditioned Stimulus – a neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response through pairing with a US
Cycle A description of behavior that specifies when a behavior begins and when it ends.
Dead Man’s Test Test for evaluating whether a goal or objective is viable. If a dead man can do it, then it may not be a functional, useful goal.
Deprivation Absence of reinforcer for a period of time, thereby making that event more effective as a reinforcer.
Discrete Trials An instructional method wherein the client is presented with formal opportunity to perform behavior. Consequence is provided depending on behavior.
Discriminated Operant Behavior that requires some "opportunity" or specific antecedent to occur. Ex: to follow directions, there must first be a direction given.
Discrimination Refers to a change in observed behavior when antecedent stimuli are changed
Discrimination Training Echoic Reinforcing a behavior in the presence of some antecedent and extinguishing (or punishing) the behavior in the absence of the antecedent.
Echoic "1. Form determined by prior verbal stimulus 2. Point to point correspondence 3. Formal similarity 4. Maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcer 5. Audience is part of SD, but does not determine the form"
Environment Entire constellation of stimuli that can affect a person (includes both internal/external)
Escape behavior Escape behavior is behavior that is reinforced by terminating a stimulus (negative reinforcer)
Escape Extinction Extinction of a negatively reinforced behavior. Withholding escape.
Establishing Operation "1. Increases the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus 2. Increases the strength of the behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past"
Evocative effect When a stimulus causes an immediate strengthening of a response. Term applies to the effect of an SD, CS, or US.
Extinction Withholding a stimulus that normally occurs after a behavior, resulting in a decrease in the rate of behavior.
Extinction Side-Effects Extinction burst, emotional behavior, aggression, increase in variety of topographies, increase in intensity of behavior
Free Operant Behavior that can occur at anytime, given some motivation. Is not strongly tied to a particular SD
Functional Response Definition Includes the topography of response as well as the functional antecedents and/or consequences.
Function-altering The concept that conditioning (and rules) alters the function of stimuli. For example, discrimination training creates SDs. And, reinforcement creates EO s.
Function-altering: Operant conditioning Reinforcement alters the function of neutral stimuli and results in the emergence of SDs and EO s.
Function-altering: Respondent conditioning The pairing of a NS and US results in a change of the NS function - it becomes a CS.
Function-altering: Rules Rules create new CSs, SDs, conditioned reinforcers, EO s, etc. through a function-altering process.
Fundamental Characteristics of Behavior "1. Temporal locus 2. Temporal extent 3. Repeatability Rate, Latency, Duration, and IRT are derived from these."
Generalization Gradient A graph that shows the frequency of a behavior in various stimulus conditions, one of which is the "training" situation and then other similar but untrained "test" situations.
Incident method of pinpointing Have caregiver report a specific incident of problem behavior, and derive the definition from the incident
Intraverbal "1. Form determined by prior verbal stimulus 2. No point to point correspondence 3. Formal similarity not necessary 4. Maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcer 5. Audience is part of SD, but doesn't determine the form"
Mand "1. Form determined by EO 2. Maintained by generalized specified reinforcer 3. Audience is SD, but doesn't determine the form"
Motivational Operation (2 effects) "1. Changes the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus 2. Changes the strength of behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past"
Negative Punisher Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, decreases the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will increase.
Negative Reinforcement Process in which a stimulus is terminated after a behavior, and the rate of the behavior increases.
Negative Reinforcer Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behavior, increases the rate of the behavior. Note that IRT will decrease.
NS Neutral Stimulus – stimulus that does not elicit a response prior to conditioning
Operant A collection of responses with a common effect on the environment. Ex: child may do a variety of things to obtain attention.
Operant Conditioning Kind of learning where a class of responses (operant) is modified by changing its consequences.
Pinpoint behavior Objective definition of the behavior in question
Positive Punisher A stimulus that when presented after a behavior, decreases the rate of behavior. The IRTs would increase.
Positive Reinforcement Process in which a stimulus is presented after a behavior and the rate of the behavior increases. The IRTs would decrease.
Positive Reinforcer Stimulus that when presented after a behavior, increases the rate of the behavior. Note that the IRT will decrease.
Primary Reinforcer Reinforcer effective without previous conditioning (food, water)
Reflexive CMO Have their effects because their presence signals a "worsening" or "improvement" of conditions. In the former, their offset is reinforcing. In the latter, their offset is punishing.
Resistance to Extinction The extent to which behavior persists when the maintaining reinforcer is withheld. Abbreviation: RTE
Respondent (classical) Conditioning Kind of learning in which one stimulus is paired with a second stimulus and, as a result, the first comes to elicit the same or similar response that the second elicits
Respondent Extinction Decrease in the strength of a CR as a result of presenting the CS alone
Response A single instance of a behavioral class.
Response Definition Description of a response that is in objective and observable terms
Response Generalization Effects of a contingency spread to responses not yet associated with the contingency.
Rule-Governed Behavior Behavior resulting from rules rather than direct exposure to contingencies. For example a person may put together a bike using the instruction manual.
Rules Contingency-specifying stimuli (CSS) that describe relations between stimuli or between stimuli and behavior
Satiation Decrease in responding due to the reduced effectiveness of the reinforcer, because the person has received too much of it.
Scatterplot A chart that shows occurrences of behavior in a given time frame
SD "Stimulus that 1. evokes a behavior 2. because that behavior has been reinforced in the presence of the stimulus."
S-delta "A stimulus that: 1. suppresses a behavior 2. because that behavior has been extinguished in the presence of the stimulus"
SDP "Stimulus that 1. decreases or suppresses a behavior 2. because that behavior has been punished in the presence of the stimulus."
Sensory Extinction Extinction of a behavior maintained by sensory reinforcers. The sensory reinforcers are withheld.
Skinner’s Verbal Behavior A system of language that classifies verbal behavior according to its function.
Social Extinction Extinction of a behavior maintained by social reinforcers. Withholding social reinforcement.
Social Learning Theory Theory of learning that posits learning occurs as a result of observations that subsequently affect the person through cognitive mediational processes.
Spontaneous Recovery after an extinction session, a temporary re-appearance of the behavior in the beginning of the next extinction session.
Stimulus An energy change in the environment that affects a person through his/her senses.
Stimulus Class Collection of stimuli with a common characteristic. Ex: any stimulus that evokes tantrums, or any stimulus of a certain wavelength.
Stimulus Control The extent to which a behavior occurs when the antecedent stimulus is presented. EX: Mom has stimulus control over a child's tantrums to the extent that the child tantrums in the presence of mom, and does not tantrum in her absence.
Stimulus Generalization Effects of a contingency spread to stimuli not yet associated with the contingency.
Superstitious Behavior Behavior that occurs due to adventitious reinforcement. In this kind of "accidental" reinforcement, the reinforcer is not produced by the response, but nontheless occurs after it.
Surrogate CMO A surrogate CMO has its effect because of a history of pairing with an MO, and these effects mimic those of the MO.
Tact The form of a tact is determined by a prior non-verbal stimulus. Audience has some discriminative control, but does not determine the form. The reinforcer is a GCR.
Target Behavior Behavior to be changed.
Textual The form of a textual is determined by a prior verbal stimulus that is in written form. Audience has some discriminative control, but does not determine the form. The reinforcer is a GCR. There is PTP correspondence but formal dissimilarity.
Topographical Response Definition Includes only description of the form, or topography, of the response.
Topography of Response Form of response (e.g. kicking, hitting,)
Transitive CMO Change the reinforcing value of some other stimulus, and change the strength of behavior that has produced that stimulus in the past.
Trigger analysis Examine the evocative effects of a particular antecedent stimulus
Unconditioned Reinforcer A reinforcer that is effective without previous experience. Ex: food, drinks
UR Unconditioned Response- response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
US Unconditioned Stimulus – stimulus that elicits a behavior w/o any history.
Verbal behavior Behavior that is maintained by reinforcement mediated by another person. In the refined definition, the other person (audience) is trained by the verbal community to provide the reinforcer for that behavior.
Created by: gbsmilez