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Anatomy Physiology 2

Test 2

Pulmonary circuit (contains) Pulmonary arteries and Pulmonary veins
superior venae cavae the furthest a red blood cell can travel is the
Right side of heart Carry Oxygen-poor blood arrives from inferior and superior venae cavae and pulmonary arteries
Heart located Mediastinum, between lungs
The heart lies touching the diaphragm, pointing toward the Left lung
Heart wall has HOW MANY LAYERS (3) three layers: epicardium, myocardium and endocardium
Myocardium proportional to work load or performs the work of the heart.
Right and left atria (CHAMBER S OF THE HEART) Two superior (upper) chambers Receive blood returning to heart ( receiving chambers of the heart) Thinner walls than the ventricles
Right and left ventricles Two inferior (lower) chambers Thicker walls of the heart The discharging chambers of the heart
Pressure Gradients Valves opening and closing of the heart valves is caused BY
Right AV valve has HOW MANY CUSPS Right AV valve has three cusps (tricuspid valve)
WHICH Atrioventricular (AV) valves regulates the opening between RA and RV RIGHT AV VALVE
Atrioventricular (AV) OXYGEN poor blood passes through the Right AV (tricuspid valve and pulmonary valves)
(known as mitral valve, formerly ‘bicuspid’) between LA and LV Left AV valve
between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk Pulmonary semilunar valve
What separates the right ventricle and pulmonary artery? Pulmonary semilunar valve
WHICH DIRECTION DOES THE Pulmonary trunk and arteries carry blood? Pulmonary trunk and arteries carry blood TOWARD the lungs
Aortic semilunar valve opening between left ventricle and into the artery (Aorta)
Left coronary artery (LCA) Left coronary artery (LCA) directly stems from the ascending aorta before it branches into the circumflex branch and anterior interventricular branch
The Conduction System :ORDER SAAPC 1)Sinoatrial (SA) node 2) Atrioventricular (AV) node (3) Atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His) (4) Purkinje fibers (5) Cardiocytes in Left Ventricle
PACEMAKER- SA NODE *Starts at −60 mV and drifts upward due to slow Na+ inflow *Cells of the SA NODE depolarize slow or gradual depolarization is called pacemaker potential * and Na+ channels open
P WAVE Atria depolarize causes P wave and contract
T wave – T wave – deflection that is generated by Ventricular repolarization and relaxation
Mitral valve prolapse: Causes blood to leak back into the Left Atrium when the ventricles contract
First heart sound (S1) Lubb,” occurs with closure, .. ( closing mitral and tricuspid valve)
Cardiac output (CO) Cardiac output (CO)—volume of blood or amount ejected by each ventricle in 1 minute
stroke volume (SV) Increased venous return
Frank–Starling law of the heart Stroke volume is proportional to the end diastolic volume
Tunica media much thicker in arteries than it is in veins.
Tunica externa (tunica adventitia) Outermost layer of an artery or vein Consists of tough loose connective tissue Vasa vasorum: larger vessels and arteries
Arteries sometimes called resistance vessels because of their strong, resilient tissue structure Arteries are classified by size Conducting (elastic or large) arteries Biggest arteries and vessels have thickest tunica media
Arteries are classified by size Biggest arteries and vessels have thickest tunica media
Arteries Functions: (4) - thicker tunica media than veins - carry blood away from the heart - they carry blood to arterioles - no endothelium valves
greatest volume of blood found in the body VEINS
Veins Functions: - thinner tunica media than arteries - carry blood back to heart - receive blood from venules - has endothelium has one way valves
Blood pools in the lower legs varicose veins
Blood backflows and further distends the vessels, their walls grow weak and develop into varicose veins
Arterial anastomosis (alternative) routes of blood supply to a tissue
Factor influences resistance to blood flow are blood viscosity and tension of the muscles in the wall of the blood vessels
AS BP tends to rise with age - arteries get “hard” and absorb less systolic force
*regulated mainly by kidney * direct cause of blood pressure BV BLOOD VOLUME
Blood pressure (BP) Blood pressure is highest in the Blood pressure is lowest in the highest in the large arteries lowest in the large veins
Blood viscosity (“thickness”) Increased viscosity would decreased the velocity OF BLOOD FLOW
most powerful influence over flow Vessel radius
changes in vessel radius, associated with smooth muscle in the tunica media Vasoreflexes
Vessel radius most important effect or markedly affects blood velocity
Medullary ischemic reflex Results in increased circulation to the brain Medulla oblongata monitors its own blood supply, where vasomotor located (ALL THE ABOVE(
Angiotensin II potent vasoconstrictor also powerful vasoconstrictor
Atrial natriuretic peptide Lowers or decrease blood pressure
Hydrostatic pressure most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary REMEMBER ARTERIAL END
Blood pressure is the most important force in venous return Pressure gradient generated by the heart
the first blood vessel of pulmonary circulation Pulmonary artery
Aorta - is the first blood vessel of the systemic circulation
- lymphatic vessels Recover 15% of fluid filtered by capillaries
Blood capillaries and lymph capillaries are - microscopic in size - made of endothelial tissue
Lacteals in small intestine absorb dietary lipids that are - special lymphatic vessels
Two collecting ducts are the largest lymphatic vessels and empty into the subclavian veins THORACIC AND RIGHT LYMPHATIC DUCT
Veins in the circulatory system and veins in the lymphatic system - carry fluid back toward the heart - have one-way valves
B lymphocytes (B cells) produce antibodies called “plasma cells”
After birth, B cells change from stem cells to _______ in bone marrow immature B cells
remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age THYMUS
Thymus gland : Stem cells seed structure help develop T cells
most numerous and only lymphatic organs with AFFERENT lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes
Lymph enters the node through_____ afferent lymph vessels. four
Lymph_____ the node through ONE_____ lymphatic vessels that leave the hilum EXITS EFFERENT
The body’s largest lymphatic organ Spleen
secreted by cells infected by viruses and antimicrobial agents Interferons
When enemy cell is present______ cells continually patrol body looking for pathogens and diseased host cells Natural killer (NK) LOL SECUTIRY GUARD
NATURAL KILLER CELLS RELEASE proteins called PERFORINS Polymerize a ring and create a hole in its plasma membrane or cell membrane SECRETED enzymes GRANZYMES
Production of one’s own antibodies or T cells as a result of infection or natural exposure to antigen Example: have the chickenpox once,never get again. Natural active immunity (NA)
Production of one’s own antibodies or T cells as a result of vaccination AGAINST DISEASE Example: Getting “flu shot” ARTIFICIAL ACTIVE immunity (AA) (AGAINST)
VACCINE stimulate the immune response without causing the disease
Fetus ACQUIRES antibodies from mother Natural passive immunity (NP) (NATURALLY MOTHER PASSES TO CHILD)
serum (antibodies)(BLOOD) from another person for emergency treatment snakebite, botulism, rabies, tetanus, and other diseases Ex: exposed to Hep.A and have not been vaccinated , you may receive antibodies from another person. Artificial passive immunity (AP)
identification tags” recognize antigens when they are bound to (MHC) complex Helper T Cells
an antibody two antigen–bonding sites (found in blood plasma, tissue fluids, body secretions) Immunoglobulin (Ig)
IgA Provides passive immunity to newborns ex tears
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES autoantibodies that attack body’s own tissues Example: Systemic LUPUS
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