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Chapter 1B

Radiographic Positioning and related Anatomy

What are the four image quality factors of a radiograph? Density, Contrast, Spatial Resolution, Distortion
The amount of blackness on a processed radiograph is called? Density
Which specific exposure factor controls the quality or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam? kilovoltage (kV)
Exposure Time (ms) Controls the duration of the exposure, usually expressed in milliseconds.
Exposure latitude The range of exposure over which a film produces an acceptable image.
The 3 common types of compensating filters Wedge filter, Trough filter, and Boomerang filter
List the 3 geometric factors that control or influence image resolution Focal spot size, Source image receptor distance (SID), Object image receptor distance (OID).
List the 6 image quality factors to evaluate digital image Brightness, Contrast, Spatial Resolution, Distortion, Exposure Indicator, Noise.
List the four primary controlling factors for distortion Central Ray Placement, Object IR Alignment, Source image receptor distance (SID), Object image receptor distance (OID)
List the terms describing the two pixel sizes used in digital image Acquisition Pixel Size, Display Pixel Size
List the four factors that affect the exposure indicator in the digital image mAs, kV, Total Detector Area Irradiated, Objects Exposed.
List the three components of a photostimulable storage phosphor plate system Image Plates, IP Reader, Technologist QC Workstation.
Annotation Adding text to image
Edge Enhancement Increasing brightness along the margins of structures to increase the visibility of the edge
Image Reversal Reversing the dark and light pixel values of an image
Magnification Enlarging all or part of an image
Smoothing The application of specific image processing to reduce the display of noise in an image
Subtraction Removing background anatomy to allow visualization of contrast media-filled structures.
P.A.C.S. Picture Archiving Communication System also linked to a "virtual filmed library"
DICOM Digital Imaging Communications Medicine
RIS (Radiology Information System) A computer system that supports the operation of a radiology department. Includes exams, order processing, scheduling, registration, report archiving, film tracking and billing
HIS (Hospital Information System) Computer system designed to support and integrate the operations of the entire hospital
HL7 Health Care Level 7
IR Image Receptor
OID Object Image Distance
DR Digital Radiography
AEC Automatic Exposure Control
Windowing The user adjusting the window level and window width (image contrast and brightness) by the user
Bit-depth Representative of the number of shades of gray that can be demonstrated by each pixel
Noise Random disturbance that obscures or reduces clarity
Exposure level Term used by certain equipment manufacturers to imply exposure indicator
Central Ray has no divergence; the least amount of distortion
Display Matrix Series of "boxes" that give form to the image
Brightness The intensity of light that represents the individual pixels in the image on the monitor
Contrast The difference in brightness between light and dark areas of an image
Exposure Indicator A numeric value that is representative of the exposure the image receptor received in digital radiography
Pixel Picture element; an individual component of the image matrix
Window level Controls the brightness of a digital image (within certain range)
Window Width Controls the range of gray levels of an image (the contrast)
Algorithms Highly complex mathematical formulas that are systematically applied to a data set for digital processing
Post-processing Changing or enhancing the electronic image so that it can be viewed from a different perspective or its diagnostic quality can be improved
Spatial Resolution The recorded sharpness of structures on the image; also may be called detail, sharpness, or definition
What is the primary control factor of film density? mAs
A general rule state that a minimum change in mAs of 25-30% is required to make a visible difference in radiographic on the repeated radiograph To light, double mAs. To dark, cut mAs in half.
Anode heel effect The intensity od radiation emitted from the cathode end of the x-ray tube is greater than that emitted at the anode end.
Grid Used to absorb much of the scatter radiation before it hits the IR.
Penumbra The unsharp edges of objects in the projected image
Voluntary Motion Motion patients control such as breathing
Involuntary Motion Motion that can not be controlled by the patient such as peristaltic action of abdominal organs.
distortion Misrepresenting of objects size or shape
ALARA Always to ensure that the radiation dose to both the patient and other health care professionals is kept as low as reasonably achievable.
The unit for absorbed dose Gray (rad)
The product of the absorbed dose and the radiation weighting factor yields the equivalent dose in units of? Sievert (or rem)
What is the annual dose limit for occupationally exposed workers? 50 mSv (5 rem)
What is the recommended cumulative lifetime dose for occupationally exposed workers? 10 mSv (1 rem) x age in years
Which type of compensating filter is used commonly for AP projections of the thoracic spine? Wedge filter
Which type of compensating filter permits soft tissue and bony detail of the should to be equally visualized? Boomerang Filter
If an anatomy part is greater than 10 cm, what must be used? Grid
24 x 30 cm 10 x 12 in"
18 x 24 cm 8 x 10 in"
35 x 43 cm 14 x 17 in"
30 x 35 cm 11 x 14 in"
24 x 24 cm 9 x 9 in"
18 x 43 cm 7 x 17 in"
Image Gently intended to reduce unnecessary dose to children
Image wisely Eliminates unnecessary radiation and dose exposure to adults. conducting the most appropriate imaging procedure.
Roentgen (R) Coulombs per kilogram (c/kg) of air
Radiation absorbed dose (rad) Gray (Gy)
Radiation equivalent man (rem) Sievert (Sv)
What is the maximum dose limit for a pregnant technologist per month? 0.5 mSv (50 mrem)
What is the maximum dose limit for a pregnant technologist for the entire gestational period? 5 mSv (500 mrem)
What is the ED limit for minors under the age of 18? 1 mSv (0.1 rem)
TLD Termoluminescent Dosimeter
OSL Optically stimulated luminescene (dosimeter)
Created by: sweeneya