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Stroke

TermDefinition
stroke A stroke (apoplexy) is the sudden onset of weakness, numbness, paralysis,
modifiable risk factors Hypertension is the primary risk factor Cardiovascular disease Elevated cholesterol or elevated hematocrit Obesity Diabetes Oral contraceptive use Smoking and drug and alcohol abuse
non-modifiable risk factors Age (older than 55 years), male gender, African Americans
types of stroke Ischemic (80%–85%) Hemorrhagic (15%–20%)
stroke Sudden loss of function resulting from a disruption of the blood supply to a part of the brain
clinical manifestations Change in MS Slurred speech, aphasia, and dysphagia Numbness or weakness of the face or extremities, especially on one side of the body Visual disturbance Cranial nerve disturbance Loss of balance or coordination Sudden severe headache Dizziness
TIA Causes: atherosclerosis Symptoms: Sudden change in visual function, sudden loss of sensory or motor functions
Hemorrhagic Causes: hemorrhage, cerebral aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation Symptoms: “exploding headache”, decreased LOC Recovery: slower, usually plateaus at about 18 months
Ischemic Causes: artery thrombosis, cryptogenic embolic Symptoms: numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg (one side of the body) Recovery: usually plateaus at 6 months Thrombotic/ embolic
TIA Temporary neurologic deficit resulting from a temporary impairment of blood flow “Warning of an impending stroke” Diagnostic workup is required to treat and prevent irreversible deficits
ischemic strok Disruption of the blood supply caused by an obstruction, usually a thrombus or embolism, that causes infarction of brain tissue
Created by: beatrice43