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Biology exam #2

chapter 9-10

TermDefinition
Cellular energy is the cycle of energy between plants & animals that involves photosynthesis & cellular respiration resulting in a production of CO2 & H2O for plants
Plants use energy from the sun b/c they are photoautographs & can convert CO2 & H2O to glucose & O2 through photosynthesis a process that happens in the chloroplasts
Animals consume plants & use glucose &O2 to produce ATP through the process of cellular respiration which occurs in the mitochondria
photosynthesis 6CO2 (gas) + 6H2O + photons ( light) ---> Glucose + 6O2 (gas)
Cellular respiration glucose + 6 O2 ----> 6 CO2 + 6H2O + 32 ATP
Aerobic Metabolism a chemical reaction requiring oxygen -it is used by cellular respiration by supplying oxygen to the skeletal muscles after a hard work out
Anerobic Metabolism are chemical reactions that do not require oxygen -this process is also used by cellular respiration ex) fermentation
Cellular respiration in 3 stages 1) Glycolisis 2) Citric acid cycle 3) Oxidative phosphorilation
Glycolysis -take place in the cytosol of the cell -requires glucose + Atp + NAD+ 1)the glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvate 2) the e- from glucose are reduced to NADH 3) NADH transports the e- starts off w/ 2 ATP and ends w/ 4 ATP
Types of enzymes in glycolysis 1) Hexokinase: binds glucose to A+P = ADP to produce glucose phosphate 4) Aldolase 10) Pyruvate kinase : converts PEP to pyruvate
Citric Acid Cycle occurs in the Mitochondria - here the process of breaking down glucose derivatives ends 1) oxidation of the glucose pyruvate is completed resulting in production of CO2 2) Acetyl CoA is produced from the pyruvate 3) e- from glycolisis are reduced
NAD+ & FAD NAD+==> NADH FAD===> FADH2
final chemical reactions of the citric acid cycle succinate dehydrogenase converts to fumarate
Oxidative Phosphorlilation occurs in the cristae 2 step process 1) electron transport -NADH, & FADH2 deliver e- through redox reactions to a chain -that reaches oxygen the last e- acceptor 2) Chemiosis - uses energy from the [H+}
cristae inner membrane of the mitochondria
redox reactions where electrons are accepted and donated to a chain of electrons
Created by: Marlene0127