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Science Study Guide

Final Exam

TermDefinition
Earth's Tilt 23 1/2 degrees The tilt causes seasons to occur
Perihelion When earth is closest to the sun.
Aphelion When earth is farthest from the sun.
Elliptical Orbit All planets move in this orbit, with the sun at the focus. The shape of earth's orbit.
Earth's Revolution Term for the earth orbiting or circling the sun. Makes one revolution in 365.24 days. Is elliptical.
Earth's Rotation Term for spinning. It takes 24 hours for 1 full rotation. It gives us day and night. Rotates on an imaginary axis.
Speed of Earth's Rotation 1,000 mph
Satellite The moon is considered a natural satellite.
The inner and outer planets named in order: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Light Year The distance light takes to travel in a year.
Proxima Centauri The closest star other than the sun.
Milky Way A galaxy. Earth is part of it.
Andromeda Closest other galaxy to earth.
Pangaea Occurred 150,000,000 BP. It is a super continent.
Dates of the Ice Age The most recent was 17,000 BP
Age of the Earth 4.6 billion years old.
Chemistry Study of properties of matter and how matter changes.
How are NEUTRONS found on the periodic table? Round off the atomic mass to the nearest whole number, then subtract the atomic number.
How are ELECTRONS found on the periodic table? The number of protons
How are PROTONS found on the periodic table? Atomic number (balanced atom)
What is the CHARGE and MASS of NEUTRONS Charge: 0 Mass: 1
Earth's Tilt 23 1/2 degrees The tilt causes seasons to occur
Perihelion When earth is closest to the sun.
Aphelion When earth is farthest from the sun.
Elliptical Orbit All planets move in this orbit, with the sun at the focus. The shape of earth's orbit.
Earth's Revolution Term for the earth orbiting or circling the sun. Makes one revolution in 365.24 days. Is elliptical.
Earth's Rotation Term for spinning. It takes 24 hours for 1 full rotation. It gives us day and night. Rotates on an imaginary axis.
Speed of Earth's Rotation 1,000 mph
Satellite The moon is considered a natural satellite.
The inner and outer planets named in order: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Light Year The distance light takes to travel in a year.
Proxima Centauri The closest star other than the sun.
Milky Way A galaxy. Earth is part of it.
Andromeda Closest other galaxy to earth.
Pangaea Occurred 150,000,000 BP. It is a super continent.
Dates of the Ice Age The most recent was 17,000 BP
Age of the Earth 4.6 billion years old.
Chemistry Study of properties of matter and how matter changes.
How are NEUTRONS found on the periodic table? Round off the atomic mass to the nearest whole number, then subtract the atomic number.
How are ELECTRONS found on the periodic table? The number of protons
How are PROTONS found on the periodic table? Atomic number (balanced atom)
What is the CHARGE and MASS of NEUTRONS? Charge: 0 Mass: 1
What is the CHARGE and MASS of ELECTRONS? Charge: - Mass: ~0
What is the CHARGE and MASS of PROTONS? Charge: + Mass: 1
Atomic Nucleus The center region of an atom
Energy Levels A part around the nucleus that holds electrons
Exothermic A charge when energy is given off
Homogeneous Mixture A mixture so evenly mixed that you can't see the different parts
Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture where you can see the different parts
Mixtures Made up of two or more substances, elements, but NOT chemically bonded
Compound Two or more different atoms chemically combined to form a new substance
Physical Properties Any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured
Chemical Properties A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance
Molecule Two or more atoms combine to form a new substance
Potential Energy The energy that is stored for later use
Kinetic Energy The energy of a matter in motion
Grams A metric unit of mass A S.I. Unit that measures mass
Meters A S.I. Unit that measures length
Liters S.I. Unit that measures volume
S.I. Units The System of International Units Based on the power of 10 The standard system of measurements used by scientists around the world
Density The mass of a material in a given volume
Volume The amount of space that matter occupies
Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by chemical or physical means. The simplest substances.
Substance A single kind of matter that is pure
Evaporation Vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a liquid
Condensation The opposite of vaporization
Precipitation A solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction
Freezing Reverse of melting When a liquid changes its state to become a solid
Polarity They Hydrogen sides of water are positive and Oxygen is negative
Polar Bonds The polar bond in a water molecule is the attraction of two positive hydrogens to the negative oxygen.
Formula of Water H20
Ground Water Water found under the ground, on top of the impermeable sediment
Aquifers Any underground layer of permeable rock or sediment that holds water. (Long Island's largest ares of groundwater)
Moraine The till deposited at the bottom of a glacier forms large hills
Outwash Plains The large sandy formations found downhill from moraines
Runoff Water that moves over the earth's surface
Infiltration When water goes into the soil
Percolation When water flows through the soil
Streambed The bottom of a river
Friction The force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another
Abrasion The wearing away of rock due to its grinding action
Slope The angle of incline that water flows down due to gravity
Erosion The removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice
Deposition The process where sediment is placed down
Gravity A force that moves water and sediment downhill.
Sediment Material that is made from pieces or soil and/or remains or plants and animals
Valley Glacier A long, narrow glacier that covers up most of a continental or large island
Hemisphere One half of the sphere that makes up Earth's surface
Prime Meridian An imaginary line that makes a half circle from the North Pole to the South Pole. It is at 0 degrees longitude.
Equator It divides the Northern and Souther Hemisphere. It is at 0 degrees latitude.
Degrees Used to measure distances around the Earth
Map A flat model of part or all of the Earth's surface seen from above
Scale It relates distance on a map to the Earth's distance
Symbols Shapes and pictures that map makers use to represent features on the map
Landforms A feature of topography formed by the process of the earth
Topography The shape of the land
Key/Legend List of all the symbols on a map and what they mean
Elevation The highest above sea level of a point on earth
Contour Interval The change in elevation from contour line to contour line
Longitude Lines The distance in degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian
Latitude Lines The distance in degrees north or south of the equator
Contour Lines Lines on a map that connect points of equal elevation
Index Contour The fifth contour line that is usually darker than the others and are labeled in elevation
Plateau A landform that has high elevation and a fairly level surface
Mountain A landform with high elevation and high relief
Plain A landform made up of nearly flat or gently rolling land with a low relief
Moon's Orbit The moon's orbit around the earth takes the same amount of time as the moon's rotation. This makes the same side of the moon to always face the earth, causing the "Dark Side of the Moon."
Moon's Maria Regions filled with dark volcanic rock called basalt. The basalt look like seas and are called Maria, the Latin word for "seas".
Moon's Craters Because the moon has no atmosphere, meteorites are not burned up before they strike the surface. When they hit the surface, of the moon, craters are formed from the impact.
Describe: SUMMER Begins June 21st Called the Summer Solstice. The earth's northern end of the axis points toward the sun. This causes the Northern Hemisphere to have more daylight than other times of the year.
Describe: FALL Begins September 20th Called Autumnal Equinox. The earth's axis is straight up and down, causing both hemispheres get equal amounts of light.
Describe WINTER Begins December 20th or 21st Called Winter Solstice. The earth's southern end of the axis is pointing toward the sun, causing the Northern Hemisphere to get the least amount of light than any other time.
Describe SPRING Begins March 21st Called Vernal Equinox. The earth's axis is again straight up and down. This causes an equal amount of light to both hemispheres.
Crust Outer most layer of the earth. Makes up the ocean bottom and the continents.
Mantle The mantle lies between Earth's dense, super-heated core and its thin outer layer, the crust
Outer Core A fluid layer composed of iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle
Inner Core Contains iron and nickel. Center of the earth.
Subduction The sideways and downward movement of the edge of a plate of the earth's crust into the mantle beneath another plate.
Transform Boundary Places where plates slide past each other are called
Sea Floor Spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
Asthenosphere the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur.
Lithosphere The uppermost part of the mantle and crust
Accretion The process where the earth was formed through gravity, causing matter to come together.
Rifts A divergent boundary, where a valley or ridge is created
Conduction Heat transfer within a material or between materials
Radiation The transfer of energy through space
Convection Heat transfer by the movement of fluids
Continental Glacier A glacier that covers up most of a continent or large island
Created by: dfilippi