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Anatomy Ch 6

definition term
functions of skeletal system protection storage blood cell formation fat storage movement support
bones organized by... shape
longer than wide long bone
cube-shaped, as long as they are wide short bone
thin, broad bones flat bone
don't fit in other classes irregular bone
bones within tendons sesamoid bone
long bone example bones in arms and legs
short bone example bones in wrist/ankle
flat bone example ribs, sternum
irregular bone example vertebrae, certain skull bones
sesamoid bone example patella
develop when stress is put on tendons sesamoid bones
makes red and white blood cells + platelets red bone marrow
made mostly of triglycerides and adipocytes yellow bone marrow
65% minerals + hydroxyapatite crystals inorganic matrix
osteoid with collagen, proteglycans, GAGs, glycoproteins, + bone-specific proteins organic matrix
bone-building cells that perform bone deposition osteoblasts
osteoblasts surrounded by bone matrix in lacuna osteocytes
means break down bone osteoclasts
mean build bone osteoblasts
multinucleated cells break down bone for remodeling osteoclasts
dissolve components of inorganic matrix hydrogen ions
break down organic matrix enzymes
process of bone formation ossification/osteogenesis
occurs within membrane intramembranous ossifictaion
forms many flat bones intramembranous ossification
occurs inside hyaline cartilage endochondral ossification
forms long bones arms + legs endochondral ossification
long bones develop by... - chondrocytes swell -osteoblasts build bony collar for support - chondracytes die from lack of nutrients - bone builds to fill space
chondrocytes divide in epihyseal plate longitudinal growth
can be recruited for bone growth zone of reserve cartilage
zone of dividing chondrocytes zone of proliferation
contains mature chondrocytes zone of hypertrophy/maturation
dead chondrocytes + some calcified zone of calcification
calcified chondrocytes + osteoblasts zone of ossification
zones epiphyseal plate: close-far - zone of reserve cartilage - zone of proliferation - zone of hypertrophy/maturation - zone of calcification
bones grow in width appositional growth
new, round lamella are formed appositional growth
osteoblasts put calcium into bloodstream bone deposition
osteoclasts break down bone to reabsorb calcium bone resorption
physical factors why bone remodel - tension/stress + compression increase tissue in bone
hormonal factors why bone remodel - testosterone/estrogen stimulate bone growth
dietary factors why bone remodel - calcium ion - vitamin D -vitamin C - vitamin K - Protein
increase blood calcium ion levels parathyroid hormone
increase osteoclast activity to relase calcium parathyroid hormone
tells digestive system to absorb calcium in food parathyroid
inhibits calcium in urine parathyroid
Hormone decreasing calcium ion levels calcitonin
Hormone that leads to bone deposition calcitonin
Affects the absorption of calcium ions from the gut Vitamin D
Created by: arenjustice
 

 



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