Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Biology exam

Biology exam chapters 4-5

Carbon the back bone of life - is an unstable atom that reacts to other atoms w/unstable atoms -carbon loves to form non-polar covalent bonds (equal) -tetrahedral shape is created with multiple carbons -proteins,carb., &lipids are types of carbon compounds
Hydrocarbon are organic molecules consisting of hydrogen, and carbon -lipids have these
Functional groups are components of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions 1) Hydroxyl group (-OH) 2)Carbonyl group (C=O) 3)Carboxyl group (COOH) 4)Amino Acid group(H2N) 5)Sulfhydryl group (-SH) 6) Phosphate group (P) 7) Methyl group (CH3)
Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties ex) Glucose & Fructose
Structural Isomers have different covalent arrangements of their atoms but the same formua Ex) Glucose Fructose
cis-trans isomers have same covalent bonds but different spatial arrangements ex) Cis- X's on same side===trans-x's on opposite side
Enatiomer Are isomers of mirrior images like the left and right hand except when they are side by side - usually one is the active one -important in pharmacuticals
Major elements of organic molecules Hydrogen carbon nitrogen and oxygen
Organic Compounds (Biomolecules) formation of carbon and non polar & polar covalent bonds that can be formed or broken down
2 types of chemical reactions i) dehydration synthesis- ( forming) of a covalent bond and 2 atoms resulting in a release of water molecule ii) Hydrolysis- (breaking down) uses a single water molecule to break a covalent bond btwn 2 atoms (both require protein enzymes)
4 types of organic compounds 1) carbohydrate 2)nucleic acid 3) protein 4) fatty acid
Carbohydrate -one monosacharisdes (simple) disacharides are two but many =polysacharides(complex) C6H12O6 ex) fructose -gulcose is the primary source of energy in the body -glycogen is the stored form of glucose in plants -cellulose -structural in plants
Proteins -has 20 diff amino acids w/ diff Rgroup & functional group -polypeptides are long chains of amino acids -are ion channels, receptors, enzymes, structural proteins
4 levels of a protein= 1) Primary: synthesize a polypeptide 2) Secondary : coils & folds are hydrogen bonds coil=a=helix fold=B=pleated sheets 3)tertiary reinforce protein structure using van der awall interactions 4) Quarternary; result = many polypeptide chains
Nucleic Acid are made out of neucleotides that consist of sugar+ Base + phosphate (negativley charged) -makes up RNA( single strand) & DNA( double strand) both are polynucleotides
RNA & DNA RNA- single strand that decodes and transmits genetic information -RNA has 3 types (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA) DNA- Double stand holds genetic info in H-bonds bases (Adosine, Guaynine, Thymine, Cytosine)
Lipids consist of carbon, & hydrogen linked by a non-polar (equal electron sharing) covalent bond -hydrophobic -4 types (Tryglycerides, steroids, fatty acids, phospholipids)
Fatty Acid are long chains of hydrocarbons with the chemical formula [CH3(CH2)n COOH]
Triglycerides are found in fat cells /Adipocytes fat & oil consisting of 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids the function is to store energy , cushion & insulate organs
Phospholipids are major to the cell memebrane -consist of 1 gycerol+ 2 fatty acid + 1 phosphate group + 1 polar headed group 0~~
Steriods consist of cholesterol , 4 rings of carbon & covalent bonds - acts as a precursor for sex hormones such as testosterone & estrogen -takes a place in the cell (plasma) membrane
Enzymes Are specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions
Denaturation when a protein is unraveled & loses shape
Created by: Marlene0127



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards