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Biology exam

Biology exam chapters 4-5

TermDefinition
Carbon the back bone of life - is an unstable atom that reacts to other atoms w/unstable atoms -carbon loves to form non-polar covalent bonds (equal) -tetrahedral shape is created with multiple carbons -proteins,carb., &lipids are types of carbon compounds
Hydrocarbon are organic molecules consisting of hydrogen, and carbon -lipids have these
Functional groups are components of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions 1) Hydroxyl group (-OH) 2)Carbonyl group (C=O) 3)Carboxyl group (COOH) 4)Amino Acid group(H2N) 5)Sulfhydryl group (-SH) 6) Phosphate group (P) 7) Methyl group (CH3)
Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties ex) Glucose & Fructose
Structural Isomers have different covalent arrangements of their atoms but the same formua Ex) Glucose Fructose
cis-trans isomers have same covalent bonds but different spatial arrangements ex) Cis- X's on same side===trans-x's on opposite side
Enatiomer Are isomers of mirrior images like the left and right hand except when they are side by side - usually one is the active one -important in pharmacuticals
Major elements of organic molecules Hydrogen carbon nitrogen and oxygen
Organic Compounds (Biomolecules) formation of carbon and non polar & polar covalent bonds that can be formed or broken down
2 types of chemical reactions i) dehydration synthesis- ( forming) of a covalent bond and 2 atoms resulting in a release of water molecule ii) Hydrolysis- (breaking down) uses a single water molecule to break a covalent bond btwn 2 atoms (both require protein enzymes)
4 types of organic compounds 1) carbohydrate 2)nucleic acid 3) protein 4) fatty acid
Carbohydrate -one monosacharisdes (simple) disacharides are two but many =polysacharides(complex) C6H12O6 ex) fructose -gulcose is the primary source of energy in the body -glycogen is the stored form of glucose in plants -cellulose -structural in plants
Proteins -has 20 diff amino acids w/ diff Rgroup & functional group -polypeptides are long chains of amino acids -are ion channels, receptors, enzymes, structural proteins
4 levels of a protein= 1) Primary: synthesize a polypeptide 2) Secondary : coils & folds are hydrogen bonds coil=a=helix fold=B=pleated sheets 3)tertiary reinforce protein structure using van der awall interactions 4) Quarternary; result = many polypeptide chains
Nucleic Acid are made out of neucleotides that consist of sugar+ Base + phosphate (negativley charged) -makes up RNA( single strand) & DNA( double strand) both are polynucleotides
RNA & DNA RNA- single strand that decodes and transmits genetic information -RNA has 3 types (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA) DNA- Double stand holds genetic info in H-bonds bases (Adosine, Guaynine, Thymine, Cytosine)
Lipids consist of carbon, & hydrogen linked by a non-polar (equal electron sharing) covalent bond -hydrophobic -4 types (Tryglycerides, steroids, fatty acids, phospholipids)
Fatty Acid are long chains of hydrocarbons with the chemical formula [CH3(CH2)n COOH]
Triglycerides are found in fat cells /Adipocytes fat & oil consisting of 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids the function is to store energy , cushion & insulate organs
Phospholipids are major to the cell memebrane -consist of 1 gycerol+ 2 fatty acid + 1 phosphate group + 1 polar headed group 0~~
Steriods consist of cholesterol , 4 rings of carbon & covalent bonds - acts as a precursor for sex hormones such as testosterone & estrogen -takes a place in the cell (plasma) membrane
Enzymes Are specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions
Denaturation when a protein is unraveled & loses shape
Created by: Marlene0127