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Science Final Gr 8

8th Grade Science Final Avery Locust Valley

How do you make a science experiment more valid? Use large sample size Conduct more trials
What life characteristic describes the way an organism gets nutrients? Nutrition
What life characteristic is the absorption and distribution of materials throughout an organism? Transport
What life characteristic is how living things produce more individuals of the same type? Reproduction
What life characteristic is cells breaking down food molecules and and release energy they contain? Respiration
What life characteristic is the coordination of all life activities? Regulation
Maintaining balance within an organism Homeostasis
The SUM OF of ALL life activities (nutrition, excretion, transport, reproduction, respiration, regulation, growth, synthesis) Metabolism
What is the difference between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition? Autotroph makes its own food and heterotroph doesn't
What are the levels of Classification from broadest to most specific? Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Classification - Scientific name includes _______ and _________ Genus and Species
Name the Six categories of the STRUCTURE OF LIVING THINGS Organelle, Cells, Tissue, Organs, Organ System, Organism
What are the three parts of CELL THEORY? 1. All living things are composed of cells, 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things, 3. All cells are produced from other cells
What are 3 differences between a plant and animal cell? 1. The plant cell is rectangular, 2. the plant cell has a cell WALL, 3. The plant cell has a CHLOROPLAST
What is the function of the MITOCHONDRIA of a cell? Site of cell respiration - breaking down food molecules and releasing their energy
What is the function of the NUCLEUS of a cell? Controls the cell's activities (brain)
What is the function of the RIBOSOME of a cell? Site of protein synthesis
What is the function of the CHLOROPLAST of a cell? Site of PHOTOSYNTHESIS
What is the function of the CELL MEMBRANE of a cell? To control what enters and exits a cell
What is the chemical formula of cell respiration? oxygen + glucose (makes) CO2 + H2) + ATP energy
Cell Respiration takes place in which one of the cell organelles? Mitochondria
Which components of cell respiration are the reactants (things needed)? Glucose (C6H12O6) and Oxygen (O2)
What are the results (results) of cell respiration? Carbon Dioxide, water, and energy
What types of organisms carry out cell respiration? All organisms (people, animals, plants)
When is the process of cell respiration carried out by organisms? 24/7 All the time
What is the chemical formula of photosynthesis?
Site of photosynthesis in plant cells? Chloroplast
Energy source of photosynthesis? The sun
What are the inorganic reactants (things needed) for photosynthesis? carbon dioxide + water
What are the products (results) of photosynthesis? glucose and oxygen
When is photosynthesis carried out? Daylight
What types of organisms carry out photosynthesis? Autotrophs/Plants
Which organelle controls transport in cells? the cell membrane controls transport of nutrients and waste in and out of the cell
In Active Transport, molecules move from _______ to _________ concentration. In Active Transport, molecules move from LOW to HIGH concentration.
In Passive Transport, molecules move from _______ to _________ concentration. In Passive Transport, molecules move from HIGH to LOW concentration.
In active transport, the size of the molecules is __________ large
In passive transport, the size of the molecules is small
Is there a need for ATP in active transport? yes
Is there a need for ATP in passive transport? no
What is the function of enzymes? Enzymes speed up chemical reactions
What is a "lock and key" relationship between enzymes and their substrates? A lock and key is shaped for a substance so the enzyme and substrate fit together like puzzle pieces
What are the 3 factors that control enzyme activity? Temperature, PH level, Surface area or concentration
Cell Division: what types of cells do the process of mitosis? All body cells
Cell Division: What type of cells do Meiosis? Only cells that create gametes (sex cells)
Cell Division: How many daughter cells are produced in Mitosis? 2
Cell Division: How many daughter cells are produced in Meiosis? half the amount of DNA
What two body systems work together to help the body perform locomotion? Muscular and Skeletal Systems
What is locomotion? Movement
What is bone marrow? Soft tissue in the center and ends of bones: the RED part produces blood cells and the YELLOW part contains fat
What is cartilage? Connective tissue at ends of bones TO CUSHION JOINTS
What is a tendon? Connective tissue that connects MUSCLE TO BONE
What is a ligament? Connective tissue that connects BONE TO BONE
Which two body systems help the body to maintain homeostasis? Endocrine and nervous systems
How does the endocrine system work? Releases chemicals into the blood from glands
What is a stimulus? What is an example? A change in an organisms's surroundings that causes it to react . A loud car horn is a stimulus.
What is response? What is an example? An action or change in behavior that occurs as a result of a stimulus. A dog running away is a response from the stimulus of a loud car horn
What is the overall function of the nervous system and its receptors? RECEPTORS take in a stimuli, SENSORY NEURONS carry impulses TO the brain, INTERNEURONS transfer the impulse, MOTOR NEURON carries impulse AWAY from the brain to the muscles, EFFECTORS make the muscle or gland respond
What are 3 differences between the endocrine and nervous systems? Nervous system has short responses, Endocrine system has long responses, the Endocrine system puts chemicals into the blood to regulate the body
What is the main function of the digestive system? Break down food into small nutrients and molecules
What is mechanical digestion, and give an example Physical break down of food = chewing, grinding, or mastication of food in your mouth
What is chemical digestion and give an example. Digestive enzymes breaking chemical bonds in food = Starches are broken down into sugar
What is peristalsis? The way muscles squeeze like a wave to move substances through
Where does peristalsis occur? Esophagus: The wave of peristalsis moves food from the mouth to the stmach
Define arteries Blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart
Define veins Blood vessels that carry blood TO the heart
Define capallaries TINY blood vessels where substances are exchanged between the blood and cells of the body
Define RED BLOOD CELLS blood cells that take up oxygen in the lungs and delivers the oxygen to cells around the body
Define White blood cells blood cells that fight disease
Define Plasma: The liquid part of the blood. Chemical reactions take place there too
Define platelets Cell fragments that form blood clots
How does the SKIN provide a line of defense of the immune system? Provides a physical barrier against disease
How does the INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE provide a line of defense of the immune system? White blood cells engulf foreign invadors
How does a n IMMUNE RESPONSE provide a line of defense of the immune system? Antigens on the pathogen surface stimulate production of antibodies
What is a vaccine? A shot which is a weakened or dead form of a disease
How does a vaccine work? The body produces antibodies in response to vaccines and stores them in memory cells
How is the Antibody-Antigen relationship similar to the Hormone-Organ relationship? They are specific and fit like lock and key
Describe the cause, effect, and prevention of AIDS The cause is a virus spread by body fluids, the effect is immune cells become viral factories, the prevention is safe sex and no needles
What is the function of the SKELETAL SYSTEM support, protection, movement, blood cell production, mineral storage
What is the function of the CIRCULATORY SYSTEM transport of materials throughout an organism
What is the function of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Take in and break down nutrients
What is the function of the NERVOUS SYSTEM Detect and respond to changes in the enbironment
What is the function of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM to work with the skeletal system to move an organism and provide structure and support
What is the function of the RESPIRATORY system Take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide
Created by: ltorff
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