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Biology exam

Biology exam chapters 1-3

Levels of organization (Biological Hierarchy) 1)Biosphere- Earth 2)Ecosystems-living & nonliving 3)Community-only living 4)Population- group of same species 5)Organism-individual 6)Organ system 7) Organ- heart 8)Tissue 9)Cellular -basic level 10)Organelle 11) Chemical/ Molecular -
Properties of an organism ( Unity of life) Organisms (uni-& multicellular) must have all 7 properties in order to function 1) Evolutionary adaptation 2)Response to environment (stimuli) 3)Reproduction 4)Growth & Development 5)Energy Utilization 6)Regulation (control) 7)Order
Evolutionary Adaptation Adapting to the surroundings as a result of evolution which is the process that changes life on earth
Response to the enviorment is a stimuli organisms use to detect stuff in the environment such as the nervous system that causes you to act because of stimuli in the enviorment
Reproduction -Genetic info is key -reproduction is the ability to reproduce and pass on genetic info using the DNA properties i) Double helix (2 polynucleotides) ii) and the DNA bases A,T,C, &G
Growth & Development the ability for multicellular cells to divide due to the genetic info
Energy Utilization energy is transferred from one organism to another in different forms. energy flows through an ecosystem energy is fundimental because it is required to move, grow, and reproduce
Regulation (Control) to maintain homeostasis (self regulating) using -negative feedback (good) because it minimizes the changes that are trying to excessively self regulate the body -positive feedback (bad) because it increases changes in the body in order to respond
Order & Structure the different levels that the cell has to take in order to have a structure is important in the way the levels are ordered
Three domains Domain Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Eukaryotic Cell Domain Eukarya are multicellular and unicellular -Protist ex) Amoeba -Fungi ex) Mold -Animalia ex) Animal -Plantae ex) Oak tree
Prokaryotic cell Domain Bacteria (Unicellular -ecoli who love 37 degrees Celsius) & Domain Archaea (Unicellular- halophiles found in high salt concentrations)
Evolution Studied by Charles Darwin w/2 theories to explain unity & diversity of heritable changes 1)Species living today are descendants of ancestral species 2) Natural selection:causes descent with modification survival to the fitist
Study of science means to know how everything exists i) discovery science: based on observations that lead to questions ii)Hypothesis driven science (scientific method) 1)observation, 2)Question,3)Hypothesis,4)Prediction,5)Test,6)Result, 7)Conclusion
Chromosomes contain genetic material in the form of DNA
Cellular Respiration Cells get energy through Nutrients (energy) + O2(gas) = ATP( energy)
Atoms are also known as elements of small units that combine to form matter -2 or more atoms combined = a compound or molecule
3 states of matter solid, liquid, gas
Anatomy of an atom Protons have a positive charge and are located in the nucleus as well as the neutron with the neutral charge. the electron with a negative charge surrounds the nucleus like a shell or cloud. The electron is attracted to the positive charge of the proton
Electron shell or cloud the first shell max=2 second shell max= 8 third shell max= 8-are valence electrons because they are on the outer shell
Nobel Gases are Helium(He), Neon, and Argon because they have maxed out electron shells
Stable Atoms The outermost electron shell is full and do not like to react with other atoms Ex) Helium and Neon
Unstable Atoms The outermost shell is NOT full 2 unstable atoms held by a chemical bond= a molecule 2 unstable atoms held by a chemical bond and result of a diff. element like the way salt is made = a compound ex) Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen
Types of compounds i) Inorganic compound ii)Organic Compound; contains the atom carbon in many different structures which call for different functions
Types of chemical bonds Formed by unstable Atoms i)Ionic Bond- (Oppositely charged (+ ,-)atoms) =an ion or a cation(+) or an anion (-) ii)Covalent Bond-(when electron is shared) non polar= equal sharing of electrons polar =unequal sharing, result as net charge of (+,-)
Hydrogen bond formed between a partial (-) charged atom and a partially + charged atom ex) oxygen, & nitrogen -contributes to the formation of water -this bond helps alter the shape of larger compounds -can form polar molecules/ unequal sharing of +,&- charge
Isotope when atoms contain more neutrons than other elements making them greater in mass
Properties of water ( hydrogen bonds) 1) Cohesion Behavior 2) High heat capacity 3)Solid is less dense than a liquid form 4) Water is a solvent
What percent of water is found in human cells? 70% so it is important we do not dehydrate
Water Cohesion Behavior water molecules sticking together due to weak positive charges that the hydrogen bond emits -creating a chain of hydrogen bonds - Surface tension is created due to the hydrogen bonds and makes it harder to penetrate the surface of water
Water heat capacity 100 degrees Celsius is boiling point -due to the chains of hydrogen bonds the water stays resistant to high temps.
What is the normal body temperture 37 degrees celsius
Solid Water is less dense than liquid water hydrogen bonds of ice are less dense than liquid water the ice bonds are straightened out
Water is a solvent it has the ability to breakdown /dissociate other compounds into smaller forms - water consists of polar covalent bonds (unequal charges) that break down chemical bonds of solutes ex) Water + Salt= Saline solution (solvent)+(Solute)
Acid Is an Inorganic compound that releases a hydrogen proton in a solution -increasing the Hydrogen concentration - an acidic solution has a pH below 7
pH potential for hydrogen concentration -range is from 0 to 14
Bases Inorganic compound that removes the hydrogen concentration from a solution - has a pH above 7 - is a covalent ad Ionic bond
Buffer is a chemical added to a solution to keep the pH from changing when an acid or base is added to a solution
Blood pH is normally 7.4 pH lungs and kindneys maintain the pHby controlling CO2 levels. -if pH is to low it causes acidosis that impairs the nervous system CO2 levels increase and pH decreases
Created by: Marlene0127



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