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Human Biology C10

Human Structure and Function C10

QuestionAnswer
Antibody mediated immunity Immunity that is activated by antibodies and conferred by B cells
Antigen A foreign substance that can go on to elicit immunity in the body
Bacteria A microorganism typically made of one cell
Cell mediated immunity Immunity that is conferred by T cells
Chemical mediators A molecule that carries a message to promote phagocytosis and inflammation
Cytotoxic A substance that is toxic to cells
Inflammation A local tissue response to damage
Innate immunity Non-specific defense present at birth
Lymph Fluid from interstitial fluid that is found in the lymph vessels
Lymphocytes White blood cells derived from bone marrow
Macrophages A phagocytic cell of the immune system that is important in later stages of inflammation and repai
Microorganism An organism that cannot be seen by the naked eye
Pathogen A microorganism that causes disease
Phagocytosis A process by which a cell engulfs and destroys another cell or foreign matter
Physical barriers A part of the body that prevents entry of microorganisms to the body
Specific immunity A targeted response against a specific pathogen
Spleen An organ that responds to foreign matter and destroys defective red blood cells
Thymus An organ in the body that is the site of T cell production and maturation
Tonsils Large groups of lymphoid tissue in Nasopharynx and oral cavity
About 3% of microorganisms cause disease and are called ___ and 10% are called ____, which means they cause disease given the right conditions Pathogens Opportunistic pathogens
However, most microorganisms (~87%) are ____ to people and many are even beneficial. Harmless
Bacteria and fungi can be grown in-vitro on what is called A culture media
Culture media designed to allow some organisms to grow while suppressing the growth of other organisms are called ___. Selective Media
Other media enable differences in microorganisms to be detected e.g. the ability to utilize lactose and these are called ____ media Differential
The chemical nutrients required for growth will vary with the organism. Some organisms will only require simple ___ and ___ sources and some minerals while other organisms will require more complex constituents such as ___ and ___. The chemical nutrients required for growth will vary with the organism. Some organisms will only require simple carbon and nitrogen sources and some minerals while other organisms will require more complex constituents such as amino acids and vitamins
Why do you think these locations had the most microbial growth? Fingernails and ear The nails are difficult to clean, bacteria gets trapped. Ears often neglected, not washed or dried well. Both the nails and the ear are ‘open’ to external environment. The body is warm (37ºC) and moist, which is a good environment for microbial growth.
Plate #3 (Soil) shows highly variable microbial growth, both bacteria and fungi. Why is this? Soil provides a perfect environment for microbial growth (moist, lots of nutrients) and the presence of bacteria and fungi is essential for healthy plant growth.
Plates #2 and #6 have very little microbial growth. Why is this? (Lab door handle, research benchtop) The door handle (#2) is probably made of dry metal which is not conducive to microbial growth. The benchtop (#6) has little growth because it is cleaned regularly, and it is a dry surface.
Do you think all of the growth colonies from under the nails and the ear are harmful to humans or do some include natural flora? There may be some harmful pathogens but most would be natural flora
Can you think of locations within the body where natural flora resides? Skin, lower digestive system (ileum, colon) urinary tract (urethra), nose, pharynx, oral cavity, vagina
List factors that may influence microbial growth within an environment. Temp, pH, moisture, nutrient availability, competition, oxygen OR lack of oxygen
Comment on the transmission of Glo Germ from the contaminated students to the transmission 1, 2 and 3 students. The Glo Germ was transmitted to the other people with decreasing amounts as you go down the chain from the infected person
If the Glo Germ represented a real infection, what protected the body from becoming infected? Skin
Is this part of innate or specific immunity? Innate – skin forms a physical barrier
How might this protection be breached? Cuts and abrasions break the barrier and allow microbes to enter
Firstly, we have physical barriers such as the skin and mucous membranes. If a pathogen breaches these barriers our next line of defence is an immediate ____ response such as inflammation If a pathogen breaches these barriers our next line of defence is an immediate, but non-specific (innate) response such as inflammation
If pathogens evade or can’t be contained by non-specific (innate) responses we have a third layer of protection, the ___. If pathogens evade or can’t be contained by non-specific (innate) responses we have a third layer of protection, the adaptive immune system
The adaptive immune system adapts its response during infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen. This improved response is retained after the pathogen has been eliminated - this is called ____. The adaptive immune system adapts its response during infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen. This improved response is retained after the pathogen has been eliminated - this is called immunological memory.
What produces each of the following four features of the inflammation. Redness Heat / burning sensation Redness Increased blood supply to the area causes a reddened appearance Haemoglobin (in red blood cells) closer to the skin surface Heat / burning sensation Increased blood supply to the area produces heat
What produces each of the following four features of the inflammation. Swelling Swelling Increased blood supply and permeability of capillaries allows fluid and cells to enter infected tissue causing swelling
What produces each of the following four features of the inflammation. Pain Pain Due to the swelling (oedema) of tissues within the area, pain receptors become compressed or distorted causing them to become stimulated or irritated. Chemicals released in the area may also irritate pain receptors
Why do you think Tom had? Fever Important part of body's defence against infection. Bacteria and viruses causing infections thrive best at 37oC. Fever fights for person, not against, fever can promote activities of the immune system and inhibit replication of bacteria and viruses.
Why do you think Tom had Enlarged lymph nodes? Bacteria enter circulatory system via permeable lymphatic capillaries. Travel through vessels, become trapped in lymph nodes. Immune cells recognise antigen, respond to remove threat. Immune cells differentiate and multiply, lead to nodes becoming bigger.
Why do you think Tom had aching body? This symptom can be a consequence of toxins (poisonous waste products) released into the body from the bacteria. This can cause an all over achy body/muscle. Aching can also be due to dehydration.
Adaptive immunity Bacteria within the body are recognised by immune cells as being antigens (foreign material). After the innate immune responses occur (e.g. inflammation, macrophage infiltration), the adaptive immune system may also be activated
Cell-mediated responses- Macrophages  Macrophages and other cells of the innate defences alert T cells (note – you don’t need to know the different types of T cells) that foreign antigens are present in the body.
Cell-mediated responses- T Cells  In body you have specific small populations of T cells that recognise different types of antigens. When antigen is recognised by specific T cell, T cell directly attacks infected cells, release chemicals that promote innate immune responses
Cell-mediated responses- T Cells & B Cells  T cells contribute to activation of B cells (antibody mediated responses)  A small population of T cells remain after infection is cleared – memory T cells. The memory T cells means the next time the threat can be fought faster
Antibody-mediated responses - B Cells  Once B cells are activated by the presence of the foreign antigen and with the help of T cells they differentiate into antibody releasing cells called plasma cells.
Antibody-mediated responses -  Antibodies have many ways of eliminating antigen., some are...? o binding to the antigen to inactivate it o binding to several antigens together to form a “clump” of antigens and make them in effective. o when an antibody binds to an antigen, the complex is then often phagocytised by macrophages.
Antibody-mediated responses after infection-  Like T cells, a small population of memory B cells remain after the infection is cleared and will help Tom fight off the strep infection faster next time.
Active immunity 1. natural Immunity produced by? Example? 2. artificial Immunity produced by? Example? 1. Produced by-Antigens introduced by natural exposure Example-Exposure to pathogen, e.g. Chicken pox 2. Produced-Antigens deliberately introduced Example-Vaccine – e.g. polio
Passive Immunity 1. natural Immunity produced by? Example? 2. artificial Immunity produced by? Example? 1. Immunity produced by? Antibodies from the mother are transferred to child Example? Via placenta or breast milk 2. Immunity produced by?Antibodies produced by another person or animal are injected Example? Rabies antiserum
Created by: KaraaKinetiic