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Human Biology C7

Human Structure and Function C7

QuestionAnswer
Afferent arteriole A small artery carrying blood into the glomerulus of a nephron
Calyx A funnel shaped structure into which the tips of the renal pyramids project.
Collecting duct A long straight tubule. Filtrate from the distal convoluted tubule enters the collecting duct and drains into the calyces
Distal convoluted tubule Convoluted tubule of the nephron, located between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct
Efferent arteriole A small artery carrying blood out of the glomerulus of a nephron towards the peritubular capillaries
Filtrate Fluid that enters into the nephron through the filtration membrane of the glomerulus
Glomerulus Ball of capillaries surrounded by the Bowman’s capsule.
Loop of Henle Looped tubule of the nephron, located between the two convoluted tubules
Nephron Microscopic functional unit within the kidney. Where blood is filtered in order to make urine
Proximal Convoluted tubule Convoluted tubule of the nephron, located between the glomerulus and the loop of Henle
Renal corpuscle The glomerulus and the Bowman’s capsule that surrounds it. Filtration occurs here
Renal Related to the kidney
Tubular reabsorption Movement of materials (water, glucose) from the filtrate within the nephron back into the blood and eventually the body. Occurs mostly in the proximal convoluted tubule
Tubular secretion Movement of unwanted materials (drugs and ammonia) from the blood into the filtrate of the nephron to be excreted in urine
Ureter Paired tubular structure (right or left) carrying urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
Urethra Tubular structure carrying urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
What percentage of the Australian population show indicators (signs) of chronic kidney disease (CKD)? 10%
What are two main causes of CKD? Diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension)
What it the main health problem related with CKD (apart from kidney / renal issues)? Cardiovascular disease
What are three risk factors of kidney disease? Having diabetes, hypertension, existing heart problems, having had a stroke, family history of kidney failure, being obese (BMI > 30), smoking, 60 years of age or older, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islnder oigin, history of acute kidney injury
The presence of which components in your urine can be an indicator of kidney problems? Protein and blood
The two parts of the renal corpuscle are: 1. Glomerulus 2. Glomerular capsule
The kidneys are responsible for: 1) Excreting wastes from the body 2) Regulating concentration of solute in blood 3) Regulating blood volume and blood pressure 4) Regulating the pH of body fluids 5) Regulating red blood cell synthesis 6) Regulating Vitamin D synthesis
Sodium-potassium exchange pump 1. Is this active or passive transport? Active
Sodium-potassium exchange pump Does the Na+/K+ pump move Na+ ions up or down their concentration gradient? Up or against its concentration gradient
Sodium-potassium exchange pump Which direction are Na+ and K+ ions being pumped (i.e. from the inside to outside of the cell or vice versa)? Na+ is pumped out of the cell K+ is pumped into the cell
Symport Which molecule is moving with Na+? Glucose (amino acids also mentioned in video)
Symport Are they moving in the same direction or in opposite directions? Same (sym = same)
Symport Na+ is moving down its concentration gradient from high concentration outside the cell (in the filtrate) to low concentration inside the nephron cell. Is glucose molecule moving up or down its concentration gradient? Glucose is moving up or against its concentration gradient. i.e. from low concentration in the filtrate to high concentration inside the nephron cell.
Symport What form of membrane transport removes Na+ to prevent it accumulating inside the cell and to set up a high Na+ gradient outside the cell? Na+/K+ pump
Anti-port / counter transport Ca2+
Anti-port / counter transport Are they moving in the same direction or in opposite directions? Opposite (anti = opposite)
Anti-port / counter transport Na+ is moving down its concentration gradient. Is the other molecule moving up or down its concentration gradient? Ca2+ moves up or against its concentration gradient
Facilitated diffusion Describe the structure and function of the special carrier molecule? Protein embedded in cell membrane with a central channel. It helps move molecules across the cell membrane.
Facilitated diffusion Does this carrier molecule bind to many different molecules or is it specific? Specific
Facilitated diffusion Name two molecules that move across the cell membrane via facilitated diffusion? Name two molecules that move across the cell membrane via facilitated diffusion?
Facilitated diffusion facilitated diffusion moving the molecule up or down its concentration gradient? Down its concentration gradient. From high to low concentration.
Facilitated diffusion Is facilitated diffusion an active or passive process? Diffusion is passive – it does not require energy (ATP).
Facilitated diffusion Is the movement of these molecules via facilitated diffusion only in one direction across the membrane? Can occur in either direction across membrane depending on concentration gradient, but the molecule always moves from high to low concentration
Facilitated diffusion In the case of the nephron, is glucose moving from the filtrate to the blood, or from the blood to the filtrate (i.e. is it being re-absorbed or secreted?) Glucose is in high concentration within the nephron cell (remember it came into the nephron cell with Na+ via symport). Glucose is moving from the filtrate to the blood. It is being reabsorbed into the body where it will be used by cells to make ATP.
Can you think of anything in the blood that would not move across the dialysis membrane? Cells in the blood (red blood cells and white blood cells), platelets and plasma proteins
The urinary system is the most important for excretion of wastes. What other forms of waste removal can the body perform? The digestive system removes waste products from food, and sweating removes Na+, Cl- and urea (and some other metabolites) but these are minimal. Most waste excretion is performed by the kidneys.
The kidneys are not exactly aligned. Which kidney is displayed slightly inferiorly (lower)? Can you think of a reason for this? (Hint: what organs above this kidney?) The right kidney is slightly lower. The liver is on the right, and it displaces the right kidney so it is lies slightly lower than the left kidney
Place the following structures of the kidney in the order urine will flow after it leaves the collecting ducts of the renal tubule: Renal pyramid, minor calyces, papilla, major calyces and renal pelvis 1 Renal Pyramid 2 Papilla 3 Minor calyx 4 Major calyx 5 Renal pelvis 6 Ureter
What is the difference in colour between the medulla and cortex? The cortex is lighter than the medulla. The pyramids in the medulla are a darker red.
How many nephrons are there in each kidney? How long are they? How many nephrons per kidney 1.3 million nephrons in each kidney Average length of a nephron? 50 – 55 mm long
Fenestrae in capillary endothelium Holes in the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries
Basement membrane Found in between the endothelial cells and the podocytes
Filtration slits Spaces between the podocyte cell processes
Why may the presence of blood or large amounts of protein in the urine indicate damage to the filtration membrane in the renal corpuscle? The filtration membrane needs to be intact to prevent large particles like RBCs, WBCs and plasma proteins passing through. If any of these are present in the urine this suggests there is damage to the renal corpuscle
What effect do you think a large increase in systolic blood pressure would have on the filtration of fluid within the renal corpuscle? Increased overall blood pressure will lead to an increase in the pressure of blood coming in to the glomerulus. Increased blood pressure in the glomerulus will increase how much fluid is filtered into the nephron.
Proximal convoluted tubule Main area for reabsorption of water (80%) 100% reabsorption of amino acids and sugars
Distal convoluted tubule Controlled secretion of wastes, toxin, excess ions Alters concentration of urine by varying water reabsorption
Loop of Henle Reabsorbs ions and water. NB you do not need to know details about the medullary gradient in the kidney
What is the following part of the nephron called after the distal convoluted tubule? Collecting duct
What would happen to the volume of urine if you drank a bottle of water (600ml) in an hour while you were studying? Urine volume will increase as you are taking in more water than you are losing to the environment.
Coffee and alcohol are diuretics. What does this mean? Diuretics make you pass more urine by affecting the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. Drinking too much coffee or alcohol can make you dehydrated. Dehydration contributes to the symptoms one may experience from drinking too much alcohol
What do you predict would happen to the volume of urine if a person had been stranded out at sea for 24 hours with no fresh water? (They were sensible enough to know NOT to drink seawater!) Decreased urine output, as the person would be dehydrated. Some urine would still be produced because the body still needs to excrete waste products that can only be done in solution.
What abdominopelvic regions are the kidneys in? Right kidney – right lumbar; left kidney – left lumbar
What organs lie superior to each kidney? Right kidney – liver; left kidney – stomach, pancreas
Measure the right and left kidneys superiorly to inferiorly, which kidney is the largest? Right kidney – ~86mm, Left kidney ~ 105mm
Which body cavity does the bladder lie within when it is empty? Pelvic
The bladder is a hollow structure that stores urine. What volume of urine do you think the bladder usually holds? At capacity the bladder can hold up to 1 L. On average, you may get the urge to urinate at anything > 200 mls
As the bladder fills it expands, do you think there may be a change in the body cavity location when the bladder is full? It moves upwards and lies across the border of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
What is the name of the tubes that transport urine from the bladder to outside the body? Urethra
What is the name of the tubes that transport urine from the kidney to the bladder? Ureter
Note where the ureters enter the bladder, e.g. do they enter anteriorly, posteriorly, superiorly? The ureters enter the bladder posteriorly
The ureters enter the wall of the bladder on an angle (obliquely). This arrangement decreases the risk of the backflow of urine from the bladder to the ureter. Why do you want to prevent backflow of urine? Backflow of urine can lead to urinary tract infections, e.g. if you have a bladder infection, backflow of urine could lead to infection of the ureter and kidney. By stopping backflow, the risk of infection of the kidneys is much reduced.
What is the role of the muscular layer in the bladder wall? The bladder needs to contract to help expel urine.
What is the name of this epithelium lining the bladder? What are the features that enable it to cope with the expansion of the bladder as it fills with urine? Transitional epithelium. In an empty bladder this epithelium is 5-6 layers, but as the bladder expands this epithelium “stretches” and decreased down to 1-2 layers in a full bladder
Examine the urethra on the male and female pelvis models. Do you notice any difference between the male and female urethras or are they exactly the same? Female urethra is 3-5 cm, males is 18-20 cm. The shorter urethra in the female is one reason why females are more prone to urinary tract infections than males.
Created by: KaraaKinetiic