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Human Biology C4

Human Structure and Function C4

Define Gaseous Exchange The movement of gases from one place to another, for example the movement of oxygen out of the alveoli into blood capillaries.
Define Pleural cavity Each lung is surrounded by a pleural cavity formed by two serous membranes and containing a small amount of fluid
Alveoli Small air filled sacs located deep inside the lungs, where gas exchange between the air and blood occurs.
Cilia An extension of a cell plasma membrane, which functions to move material over the cell surface. Cilia line the trachea
Ventilation The process of air moving into and out of the lungs
Palate Also known as the roof of the mouth, the hard bony palate is the anterior portion and the soft palate is the posterior portion
Pharynx Also known as the throat, the pharynx is a common pathway for food and air
Larynx A passageway for air located between the pharynx and the trachea. The larynx contains a lot of cartilage to maintain on open airway
Epiglottis Cartilage located at the top of the trachea. The epiglottis tips posteriorly during swallowing to prevent food entering the trachea
Trachea A tubular passageway for air running from the larynx to the lungs. Also known as the windpipe.
Bronchi The trachea divides into a left and right bronchi (or primary bronchi) each of which extend into one lung
Bronchioles The bronchi, which extend down into each lung, continue to branch giving rise to bronchioles and finally the terminal bronchioles
Respiratory membrane The location within the lungs that gas exchange takes place. The respiratory membrane consists of the walls of the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries.
Diaphragm A thin skeletal muscle involved in breathing, it separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
Pleura A thin cellular sheet (serous membrane) that lines the lungs or the wall of the thoracic cavity.
Humidify The process by which water/moisture is added to the air that enters the body. This happens in the nasal cavity.
Hilum The medial surface of the lungs where large blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves and the primary brochi enter and exit
Expiration The process of air exiting the lungs and moving out of the body back into the environment
Why do you think there is a change in respiratory rate and/or depth of breathing when you exercise? Muscles work harder than at rest, require more energy and oxygen, need more waste products removed. Increasing respiratory rate and depth of breathing increases the amount of air inspired; increases amount oxygen available and carbon dioxide excreted
Why does the subject continue to breathe heavily after they have stopped exercising? May continue breathing heavily for a few minutes due to the oxygen debt incurred. After exercise has stopped, extra oxygen is required to metabolize lactic acid (produced by anaerobic respiration) and replenish ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen.
vitalograph dynamic test that gives information about: o Vital capacity o The rate at which expiration occurs, which is related airway resistance
Vital capacity (lung volume) measured under forced expiratory conditions (breathing out as hard and as fast as you can)
FVC (Forced vital capacity) Equivalent to vital capacity of the subject measured in litres BTPS. Maximum deflection of pen away from baseline of the chart measured in litres. Values are given on both sides of the chart.
FEV1Sec (Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) The volume of air expired in one second measured from the start of expiration, BTPS. Find the 1 second mark on the baseline. This value in litres BTPS corresponds to your FEV1sec.
FEV1.0% (Percentage forced expired volume) The volume of air expired in the first second of expiration (FEV1sec) is expressed as a percentage of your Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). E.g. (FEV1sec/FVC) x 100. (2.35/3.25) x 100 = 72%
Comment on predicted versus measured values for your subject. If they are different, do you have any suggestions as to why? The values youu are comparing with may not be valid. Nomogram data, e.g. your ethnic background may differ. If FVC is much less than predicted it is likely you did not breathe out hard and fast enough (it does take practice)
Would you expect males to have a larger vital capacity (FVC) than females for a given age and height? Why? Greater dimensions in body size (bigger thoracic cavity), stronger/larger respiratory muscles.
What are the names of the nasal ridges and passageways? Ridges = conchae Passageways = meatus
Air becomes warmer and more humid as it passes through though nose. This is important because warm, humid air increases the efficiency of gas exchange in the lungs. How does the nasal cavity warm and humidify the air? Air passes over mucous membrane lining nasal cavity, mucous produced increases the moisture of air The air is warmed to body temperature by many capillaries close to the surface in the nose, which carry warm blood (this is why your nose bleeds easily).
The nose also traps dust and bacteria, so that the air that enters the lungs is clean. What features of the nose contribute to this? External nares start filtering process for large particles. Mucous in nasal cavity traps unwanted particles, cilia lining nasal cavity sweep mucous (with trapped particles) towards pharynx. Prevents dust/other particles from entering respiratory system
How does smoking affect the processes mentioned in the question above? Smoking can change the lining of the respiratory tract and decrease the action of cilia. This means more particulate matter and bacteria can move deeper in to the respiratory tract.
Name the 3 regions of the pharynx and explain why they are given this name in this region. 1 Nasopharynx Posterior to the nasal cavity 2 Oropharynx Posterior to oral cavity 3 Laryngopharynx Superior to larynx
The pharyngotympanic (Eustachian) tube opens into the nasopharynx. Into which other space does it open and what is the purpose of the Eustachian tube? Middle ear The Eustachian tube is normally closed, but it can open to let a small amount of air through to equalize pressure between the middle ear and the atmosphere (prevents damage to ear)
There are three sets of tonsils in the pharynx and mouth. Identify these three sets of tonsils? Palatine Pharyngeal (aka adenoids) Sub-lingual
Which set of tonsils do you see when you open your mouth wide and look in the mirror? Palatine
Larynx consists of... It consists of 9 cartilages connected by muscles and ligaments. Six of the cartilages are paired (left and right) and 3 are singular.
Thyroid cartilage palpate (feel) the laryngeal prominence (Adams apple) on yourself and note it on your colleagues and model. This is the largest singular cartilage
Cricoid cartilage base that all other cartilages rest on
Epiglottis stops food entering the trachea during swallowing, directs food towards the oesophagus
When a substance other than air enters the larynx it triggers the laryngeal reflex. What does it make you do (most unpleasant feeling but occurs for a good reason!)? Cough
Describe the position of the lungs relative to the liver, sternum and ribs using correct anatomical terminology. The lungs are superior to the liver Lungs are deep/posterior to the sternum Lungs are deep to the ribs
How high do the lungs extend towards the neck? The lungs extend about 2.5 cm above the clavicle (collar bone)
What benefits are there of having the lungs encased in the ribcage? Ribcage protects the lungs (vital organ). Muscles of rib cage also assist in breathing in/out
Are the left and right lungs of equal size? What structure/s impact on the size of the lungs? No, lungs are not the same size. The heart located to the left side of the thoracic cavity decreases the size of the left lung relative to the right. However the right lung can appear shorter (superiorly to inferiorly) due to the presence of the liver.
Identify the organs of the abdomen that are in contact with the diaphragm? Do these organs impact on the lungs? The liver and stomach are in contact with the diaphragm. The liver pushes the right lung superiorly.
What is the role of the cartilaginous rings around the trachea? Maintain a patent airway (i.e. keep the airway open)
What is found directly behind the trachea? Oesophagus
The tracheal cartilages are incomplete posteriorly. What completes the ring? A muscle (the tracheal muscle) Having a muscle at the back of the trachea (rather than cartilage rings) means that food can move down the oesophagus more easily
Are the angles at which the primary bronchi leave the trachea symmetrical? No, the right is more vertical than the left. This explains why foreign objects lodge more in the right bronchi than the left (i.e. easy pathway from trachea to right bronchi).
How would you distinguish between bronchus and blood vessel at the hilum of the lung? (Hint: consider the structure of their walls)? The bronchus has cartilage plates in the walls, so it would feel hard. The blood vessels do not.
Name and number of fissures on right and left lung? Right lung 2 fissures Horizontal and oblique Left lung 1 fissure Oblique
Place the following parts of the tracheobronchial tree in the order that air would travel during inhalation. Secondary bronchi, terminal bronchioles, trachea, primary bronchi, respiratory bronchioles, alveoli, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles 1. Trachea 2. Primary bronchi 3. Secondary bronchi 4. Tertiary bronchi 5. Bronchioles 6. Terminal bronchioles 7. Respiratory bronchioles 8. Alveoli
Classify the parts of the respiratory system listed in the above question as being either conductive or respiratory: Bronchi (1°, 2°, 3°) Alveoli Bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Trachea Conductive Trachea, Bronchi (1°, 2°, 3°) Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Respiratory Respiratory bronchioles Alveoli
Watch the tutor demonstration of a pig lung being inflated and comment on the lungs ability to inflate. Do they inflate more or less than you expected? They inflate a LOT! When the lungs are in situ (within the thoracic cavity) they can’t inflate as much as when they are removed from the body, because they are contained by the diaphragm and ribs
The pleural fluid has two functions:  Acts as a lubricant, parietal and visceral pleura slide past each other as lungs and thoracic wall move during ventilation  Hold the parietal and visceral pleura together; lungs adhered to thoracic wall. Chest expands, lungs pulled out, expand as well
What happens to the lung when you introduce air into the pleural cavity? The lung collapses because the pressure of the air in the pleural space pushes against the lung tissue. This is called a pneumothorax.
The diaphragm continues to work whilst you are sleeping. Can you voluntarily control the contractions of your diaphragm? Yes we can contract it when we want to change our depth or rate of breathing (e.g. when you decide to take a deep breathe in) but it will also contract at a set pace controlled involuntarily by the brain
Have someone in your group take a very deep breath in (inhale) while standing. What happens to the rib cage? Does it move outward, upward or both? Diaphragm contracts inferiorly, ribs move superiorly and laterally (upward and outward). Volume of lungs increase, leads to decrease in pressure, creating pressure differential between inside lungs & outside (atmospheric pressure), air rushes into lungs.
List the muscles used in quiet and forced inspiration and expiration. Quiet inspiration Forced inspiration Quiet inspiration -Contraction of: Diaphragm External intercostals Forced inspiration -Contraction of: Diaphragm External intercostals Scalene Sternocleiodomastoid Pectoralis minor
List the muscles used in quiet and forced inspiration and expiration. Quiet expiration Forced expiration Quiet expiration -Relaxation of: Diaphragm External intercostals This is a passive process Forced expiration -Relaxation of muscles as described in previous column Plus Contraction of: abdominal muscles, Internal intercostals,
Alveoli are... are the small air filled chambers in the lungs where gaseous exchange occurs between the air and blood. The walls of the alveoli are thin, moist and lined with simple squamous epithelium.
Pulmonary capillaries... Pulmonary capillaries surround the alveoli. These capillaries are also lined with simple squamous epithelium, as are all blood vessels within the body.
What do you think red “lines” inside the alveoli represent? Pulmonary capillaries
What does this tell you about blood supply to the alveoli? They have a very rich blood supply and the relationship between the alveolar membrane and capillary is a very close one.
What is the benefit of having a simple squamous epithelium lining the alveoli and blood capillaries in the lung? The respiratory membrane is very thin and allows very rapid diffusion of carbon dioxide and oxygen.
Gas exchange occurs between: 1. The lung alveolus and a pulmonary capillary This is where the blood becomes oxygenated 2. A general body cell and capillary Cells are supplied with oxygen and carbon dioxide is removed from the cellular environment
Oxygen is picked up in... Oxygen is picked up in the lungs and delivered to body tissues, while carbon dioxide is picked up in the tissues and delivered to the lungs.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide move by... Oxygen and carbon dioxide move by passive diffusion, which means they move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (down the concentration gradient)
The inner lining of the trachea and bronchi contain cells that have small extensions called cilia. What is the name of this epithelium? Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Created by: KaraaKinetiic



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