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Parallelism Repeat and say the same things again and again. Any kind of patterning in language e.g. I think we...I think
Direct Address use of 'you' or even 'reader' i.e. directly addressing the reader
Technical Lexis Any kind of specialist vocabulary e.g. Medical, Scientific
Negatives Opposed to the affirmative or positive - note also multiple negatives (often used in dialect ' I haven't done nothing'
Direct Quotations The direct speech of an individual (gives text variety and increases sense of realism)
Syntax Order of words - Grammatical Structure
Terms of Address How someone is referred to - can often denote politeness and also status
Direct Speech Quoting someones actual words
Positive/Negative Lexis Vocabulary the signifies negative or positive signals
Emotive Lexis Any vocabulary which reveals strong feelings - often used to provide sympathy
Contrast A comparison showing differences
Cultural References Any specific reference to a distinct social group/people
Foreign Lexis/Borrowed Words Words from other languages
Narrative response Don't just repeat the context of the text but analyse how the writer has used language
Symbollism A word or phrase which represents something e.g. red symbolizes danger
Expressive utterances Show feelings and emotions
Proper Noun Names of people, place or organisations
Concrete Noun Names of tangible things
Abstract Nouns Concepts and ideas e.g. love, hate
Collective Noun A group e.g. team, family
Conjunction Connective Words
Prepositions Space, time, Directions
Auxiliary Verbs to, be, have
Declarative a statements often expressing a strong opinion
Interrogative A question sentence
Imperative Verbs of command
Intensifier An adverb used to intensify another word e.g. amazingly
Comparative Comparing one thing/person with another
Superlative the most or least of anything
Conditional if or when, one thing is dependent upon another
Exclamatory Sentence ending in an exclamation mark
Connotation Associations of a word
Archaism Words used in the past,no loner used in modern English
Hypernym Term generalizing nouns e.g. Fruit
Hyponym Specific things
Antonym Words with Opposite meanings
Collocation where two words go together and mix
Cohesion where two parts of a text match. Gives the text unity/structure
Determiner Gives information about the noun e.g Quantity
Adverb Describe verbs e.g end in -ly
Adverbial when, how and where
Allusion where the writer makes a reference to something outside the text e.g. historical play
Elision Abbreviation - can't, don't
Antithesis Direct Opposite
Hyperbole Exageration
Epithany Moment of self-realisation
Modal Verbs Verbs of possibility
Primary Auxiliary Verbs to, be, have- can also be main verbs
Active voice the subject in the sentence is focused on
Passive Voice the object in the sentence is focused on
Pronoun Takes the place of nouns e.g you, we
Personal pronoun Replaces the subject of a sentence e.g.I, you, he (singular) we, you,they (plural)
Possessive Pronoun used before a noun to show possession
Reflexive Pronoun Something including self
Demonstrative Pronoun these/that/this
Indefinite Pronoun indefinite words e.g. Anything
Relative Pronoun who/which
Coordinating Conjunction joining two simple sentences together
Preposition over, under, in
Fronted Conjunction Conjunction at the beginning of a sentence
Fronted Adverbial Adverbials used at the beginning of a setence
Definite/Indefinite Article Definite- the/ Indefinite - a
Phrases Any group of words built around a head word
Head Word the main noun in a phrase
Pre/Post Modifier words that describe the head word in a sentence (come either before or after)
Noun Phrases any group of words built around a noun
Verb Phrases Words built around a main verb
Minor Sentence A sentence without a verb
Created by: matthew.gulley