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Simple inheritance in animals and plants

chromosomes within the body are arranged in? pairs
4 reasons body cells divide by mitosis growth repair replacement asexual reproduction
definition of a gene? small packet of information that controls a characteristic or part of a characteristic of your body. it is a section of DNA
allele is? different forms of the same gene.
genes grouped together on? chromosomes
no. of chromosomes in body cells? 46
no. of chromosomes on gametes? 23
cell division in normal body cells happens by? mitosis
how does mitosis work? Before division, identical copies of the chromosomes are made. The cell then divides to form to genetically identical cells.
embryo cells are all? stem cells - unspecialised
differentiation occurs when? some genes switch off and some switch on, making the cell specialised for a specific purpose
cells that can always differentiate come from? plants
cells that are irreversibly specialised are from? animals
difficult to clone animals because? animal cells differentiate permanently
mitosis happens? all the time
meiosis produces gametes
how does meiosis work? same as mitosis, but cells than divide in two again.
gametes introduce variety because each cell is slightly different
type of reproduction that results in variety? sexual
egg and sperm cells fuse to form a? zygote
zygote divides to form? embryo
source of stem cells in adult humans? bone marrow
stem cells could be used to? cure many diseases
two ethical issues with using stem cells from embryos? embryo is a potential human being embryo cannot give permission
therapeutic cloning theoretically could produce? an embryo with identical DNA to the cell donor.
first person to suggest the existence of genes@ Gregor Mendel in 1866
plant Mendel used in experiments? green and yellow peas
DNA stands for ? deoxyribonucleic acid
structure of DNA? double helix
No. of chemical bases that make up DNA 4
chemical bases grouped into? threes
groups of bases code for a specific? amino acid
DNA samples can be produced from? body fluids
two X chromosomes mean you are? female
a Y and an X chromosome mean you are? male
genes are either? dominant or recessive
definition of Homozygous? two identical alleles for a characteristic, e.g. DD or dd
definition of Heterozygous? individual
definition of Genotype? describes the genetic makeup of an individual regarding a particular characteristic.
definition of phenotype? describes physical appearance of an individual's characteristics
condition where babies are born with extra toes/fingers? polydactyly
polydactyly is a ....................... allele. dominant
cystic fibrosis is a .....................allele recessive
genetic diagrams used to? predict how likely genetic disorders/characteristics are to be passed on
3 benefits of embryonic stem cells? one of the best chances of finding cures for currently incurable diseases embryos are usually spares, so wouldn't become people anyway could grow new organs for transplants
3 disadvantages of embryonic stem cells? very experimental, and could later lead to cancer all embryos are potential babies money could be better spent on developing new drugs
Created by: duane.humphreys