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what is a protein molecule? made up of long chains of amino acids
4 functions of proteins? act as structural components of tissues, as hormones, as antibodies, and as catalysts
what is an enzyme? biological catalyst
what is a catalyst? something that increases the rate of a reaction without changing themselves
2 factors that affect enzyme action? temperature and pH
term for when enzyme no longer works? denatured
why do enzymes denature? conditions change, so active site no longer fits substrate
2 enzymes that break down carbohydrates? carbohydrase (in the gut) and amylase (in the mouth)
carbohydrate broke down to form? sugars
enzyme that breaks down protein? protease
protein breaks down to form? amino acids
3 places protease is formed? stomach pancreas small intestine
enzyme that breaks down fat? lipase
fat broken down into? fatty acids and glycerol
lipase made in? pancreas small intestine
purpose of breaking down large food molecules? small molecules easier to absorb into blood stream
optimum pH for stomach enzymes? highly acidic - 1-3
acid in stomach? Hydrochloric Acid
optimum pH for enzymes in small intestine? alkaline
how is gastric juices neutralised when it reaches small intestine? bile squirted on it
2 functions of bile? neutralises acids emulsifies fats, giving greater surface area for lipase to act on
2 enzymes used in biological detergents? protease lipase
advantage of biological detergent? optimum temperature lower, so less energy needed
function of proteases in baby foods? break down proteins, enabling easier digestion
one way carbohydrases used in industry? break down starch to gain cheap sugars
enzyme used to change glucose syrup into fructose syrup? isomerase
disadvantage of enzymes in industry? denature easily
initial problem with biological detergents? caused allergies
3 ways enzymes are used in medicine? to diagnose - detect enzymes that aren't supposed to be present in the blood if liver is leaking. to control - detect whether glucose is in urine as a result od diabetes. to cure - introduced into body if it isn't producing enough enzymes. some can
Created by: duane.humphreys