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archaeologist hunt for evidence buried in the ground; fossils; where settlements may have been
fossil traces of plants and animals preserved in rock
artifact things made by humans; tools, weapons, and other things
anthropologist focus on human society; the study how humans developed and how they related to one another
nomad regularly move; travel together to be safer and gather food easier
technology tools and methods to help humans preform tasks
domesticate to tame animals and plants for human use
Hammurabi the babylonian king; began conquering cities north and south; created a code covering crimes, family, business, activities, and marriage
irrigation walls, waterways and ditches bring water into the fields. Allowed farmers to grow plenty of food
city-state has its own government: part of sumer; sumerian city
artisan skilled workers who make metal products, cloth, or pottery
cuneiform a system of writing to keep business deals; Sumerian writing, sharp long weed to create wedge sharp letters on a clay tablet.
scribe record keepers; boys from wealthy families; often go on to becoming judges
empire a group of many different lands under one ruler
Sumer(ians) 3500 BC- 1800 BC city states went to war with each other. Polytheistic good with wheel, bronze, tools, conquered by Sargon, of Akkadians
Mesopotamia(ians) Btwn Tigris and Euphrates rivers; Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Chaldeans. Floods, irrigation, trade, transportation, communication, laws, armies
Babylon(ians) Followed the code of Hammurabi: evil cruel king; 1800BC-1600 BC large center of trade.
Assyria(ns) 900-612 BC; Conquered Babylonians; they had Warrior, culture, tools, battering rams, caralry
Sahara The world's largest and hottest desert
Papyrus a reed plant that grows along side the Nile river shores. Used for baskets, sandals, river rafts, and paper making
King Khufu Had a pyramid built for him. Biggest pyramid. Built in 2540 BC; 10 miles from Cairo, west bank of Nile in Giza, 500 ft tall 9 football fields; 2 million bricks; 2.5 ton
Religion(Egyptians) Egyptian are polytheistic; re- Sun god;
Thebes a city south of memphis; in 2100 BC became new capital
Canaan Present day: Lebanon, Israel, Jordan--) After drought, famine in Mesopotamia Abraham led Israelites to Canaan
Moses grew up tending sheep, then received a message from god through a burning bush and god told him to lead the israelites out of Egypt
David Replaced Saul; He became famous for killing Goliath with stones and a sling shot.
Jerusalem The capital of Israel; Canaan's capital
Judah 2 of the 12 tribes founded the smaller kingdom; capital Jerusalem people who lived there are called jews
Solomon The son of David; and built a temple; taxed for his great buildings, and not favored by the Israelites; Also became famous for his wise sayings or proverbs
Prophet a person who claims to be instructed by god to share his words
Proverb (solomon's) wise sayings
Babylon a land jews were exiled to; met on sabbath, prayed in the synagogue
Diaspora many jews learned Greek; Translated the bible to greek so people could understand it; Jews were living outside of Judah 331 BC and forbidden from Judah
Sabbath a weekly day of rest and worship
Zealot 66 AD; Jews who wanted to fight Romans for freedom; Won and 4 years later Romans came back and killed many Jews
Bedouin lived in tents; ate dried nuts, berries, and little meat
Quran Holy book os Islam
Shiites Believed Ali should succeed him and all Caliphs should be Ali's descendants
Sunnis outnumbered shiites; accepted the Umayyad dynasty as rightful caliphs thought they didn't always agree with their policies.
Mosque muslim houses of worship; school, court, center of learning, major part of muslim cities.
Jesus A Jew; Told people a relationship with God is more important than following Religious laws; Crucified by Romans; 30-33 AD preaching
messiah a deliverer; This leader would help win back the Jew's freedom
Roman View of Jesus Thought to be a threat to Roman Law and Order
persecute to mistreat; to mistreat the christians for being bad or doing wrong things; Romans did this
crucify to be hung from the cross until dead; Romans way of punishing Political Rebels
clergy the church leaders
Old Testament the Jewish and Christian bible
Roman Catholic Church The churches of the latin speaking Christians who accepted the pope in the Western Roman empire
Eastern Orthodox Church a form of Christianity based on a Greek Heritage; Emperors chose the church officials; Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire
Dark Ages Oversea trade slowed and poverty took hold; Farmers couldn't grow enough food for the city; people forgot how to write and read; people forgot the written language; population shift
Colony a settlement in a territory that keeps close ties to its homeland
polis Greek city-state; a tiny independent country
agora The open area below the acropolis. It was a market place and where people could meet and debate
Sparta an oligarchy; Founded by the Dorians .Boys at 7 went to go train in war; girls trained in sports to become strong healthy mothers; War, military, physical state
democracy Direct- People gather to decide on government matters; Representative- citizens choose a smaller group to make laws and decisions.
Solon Canceled all farmers debts and freed the slaves. He allowed males to participate in assemblies and law courts.
Oligarchy the type of government where a few people hold power. (Sparta is one)
helot captive workers of the spartans
Persia warriors and nomads who herded cattle; monotheistic; persian wars against Greece
Cyrus the Great managed to unite the Persians into a peaceful kingdom; built large empire
Darius came to throne 521 BC; organized the government and made it better; Provinces(satrapies) rulers (satraps) led persians to loss @ Marathon
Satrapies 20 provinces Darius divided up in persian empire
Pericles 461-429 BC; a leading figure in the Athenian politics and a general; guided Athens. supported writers, architects, philosophers.
Philosopher thinkers who ponder questions about life
Religion Zeus- was the king of the gods; Hera- goddess of marriage; Hades- god of the underworld; Poseidon- god of the sea; Hestia- goddess of the home
Myth traditional stories about gods and heroes
Drama a story told by actors who pretend to be characters; tragedies and comedies
Plato Socrates' student; Wrote the Republic. About his ideas in government and politics
Pythagoras Greek Philosopher and teacher. Taught his pupils the universe follows the same laws that governed music and numbers; Mathematician, geometry
Aristotle Plato's best student; Wrote 200+ books on government, planets and stars. opened a school. Taught "Golden Mean" a person should do nothing in excess Teacher of Alexander the Great. Political ideas still used today
Herodotus Greek-Wrote the history of the Persian Wars.Separated fact from legend
legacy what a person leaves behind when they die. (Alexander left a legacy)
Himalayas The Highest mountains in the world. Create a barrier between India and Asia. India is a subcontinent
Indus River valley The land near can be used for farming. water needs to be controlled
Guru a teacher for boys at the top of the Indian Society
Caste (system) a social group that someone is born into that cannot change; dictates spouse & social partners
theocracy when religious leaders head the government. Dalai Lama was the Lama who headed the government
Mauryan Dynasty Found in 321 BC; it had a centralized government. They had a strong army, and a goof spy system and a good postal system
Gupta Empire Grew wealth from trade. Created jobs for people; Mahabharata- longest poem; Ramayana- epics; Aryabbata- Mathematician
Zhou Dynasty a large bureaucracy; The Dao was to keep the gods happy; Wu Wang 1045 BC period of warring states powerful rulers
Qin Dynasty Emperor Qin Shinhuagdi; Took over states one by one Followed legalism; killed/punished people
Han Dynasty divided empire into provinces; and countries; Tests were take to choose officials to test their skills.Inventions- iron drill bit, steel, paper, herbs, waterwheels, rudder
Laozi believed people should give up worldly desires Inner peach and Harmony with nature
Hanfeizi believed a society needs a system of harsh laws, and strict punishments, legalism
Romulus Remus "Made Rome" Brothers Romulus killed Remus because Remus made fun of Romulus .
Etruscans skilled metal workers who were rich from mining and trade. New style of dress model of army. Tarquins ruled for a century. Came north of Rome
legion smaller groups of soldiers. Made of 6,000 men. and further divided in groups of 60-120 soldiers
Carthage a state of the coast of North Africa. Ruled a big trading empire. One of the largest and Richest. Enemy- Rome in punic wars
Hadrian's Wall Built to keep out the picts and scots. They were very warlike
Punic Wars Fought between Rome and Carthage. 1- Carthage and Rome for the control of Sicily. Rome gets $ & navy. 3rd Rome destroys Carthage
Hannibal Carthage's greatest general. Attacked Rome in 218 BC 2 punic war
consul The top of the government officials. Two both patricians were chosen every year.
Octavian Caesar's grandnephew. Inherited Caesar's wealth, and two of his generals.2nd Triumvirate. (Augustus) gave power to the senate
Aqueduct a human-made channel for carrying water long distances
Ptolemy an important scientist. Lived in Alexandria; He studied and mapped the sky
plague a disease that spreads widely. It kills/affects many people
mosaic pictures created of pieces of glass and stone
Byzantine Empire lasted for 1,000 years. Spread Christianity to Eastern Europe. Trade was very important. Art and architecture was beautiful. Trade transportation; people began to speak Greek.
Empress Theodora Helped Justinian Rule the empire. She was a former actress, and was very smart. She helped women gain rights
Created by: RobertsI22



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