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Earth Science Final

Practice for the Earth science final

QuestionAnswer
Results from an increase in CO2 Global Warming
Matter changing from gas to liquid Condensation
Transfer of energy through conduction, convection, and radiation Water Cycle
All forms of water Precipitation
Retention of heat by the atmosphere Greenhouse Effect
Water changing from liquid to gas Evaporation
Temperature where if cooled, air will saturate Dew Point
Amount of water vapor in air Humidity
Latent heat is released Freezing
Latent heat is absorbed Melting
Amount of sunlight that the surface reflects Albedo
Energy sources that formed over time Fossil Fuels
Provides info about stars composition and temperature Spectral Lines
F = G m1m2/r squared Law of Gravitation
Mass, luminosity, temperature and diameter H-R Diagram
Stars and planets form from clouds and dust Big Bang Theory
When a planet is farthest from the Sun. Aphelion
1.496 X 10 to the 8th km Astronomical Unit
When a planet is closest to the Sun. Perihelion
When orbits and rotational periods are equal. Synchronous Rotation
When the Moon is farthest from Earth. Apogee
Collects light from a distant object and focuses it at a point where the image of the object can be studied or recorded Telescope
When the Moon is closest to Earth Perigee
Plane that Earth orbits around the Sun. Ecliptic
His first law states that all planets orbit the sun in a path which resembles an ellipse with the sun at one focus. Kepler
What is the term used to describe the moment right before the Big Bang occurred when the Universe was compressed to the size of an atomic nucleus? Singularity
Scientists measure the distances to nearby stars by observing how their positions change, relative to the background stars, as Earth orbits the Sun. This is called... Parallax
This process begins when a vast expanse of gas and dust known as a "dark cloud" begins to contract and heat up, causing the center to become so dense and hot that it blows away the surrounding layers. What remains of the cloud contracts still further, tri Birth of a star
Temperature of the core of a star to which hydrogen fusion occurs. 10M degrees Fahrenheit
A cloud contracts and collapses and generates heat - a potential star. Protostar
Star properties are governed by which two characterisitics mass and composition
How many atoms of Hydrogen are required to fuse into Helium? 4
The seasons on our planet are a direct consequence of ____ The orbit and tilt of the axis of Earth
Long ago, people probably observed the heavens because They relied on their knowledge of the heavens to know when to plant crops and how to navigate ships
Space travelers looking out from the front of their spacecraft would note that the light emitted from the star system toward which they were moving seemed to be getting bluer
Which of the following properties is constant for all types of electromagnetic waves? Speed
Which of the following types of visible light as the highest energy? Violet
Spectral lines are sometimes referred to as the stars' "fingerprints' because Finger prints also consist of individual lines that combine to make a pattern; Both spectral lines and fingerprints are unique and characteristic of that which has produced them.
Which of the following has an icy composition comets
Which are the terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Which are the Jovian planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
When astronomers look at any galaxy, they find that the galaxy is moving away from Earth, In determining this movement astronomers examine its Doppler Shift
Which factor is a cause of the difference in the noon time altitude of the Sun on June 21 and December 21? the tile of the Earth's axis
So far, scientist have only been able to learn about the universe beyond the Earth and Moon by Studying electro-magnetic radiation given off by objects in space
What amount of time makesup a single sunspot cycle 10-12 years
A particle moving at the speed of light takes approximately 8 minutes to travel between the Sun and Earth. If Saturn is 9.5 AU from the Sun, approximately how long will it take for a particle at that speed to travel from the Sun to Saturn? 76 minutes
Hydrogen fusion occurs where in the Sun? Core
In the Northern Hemisphere, the average temperature is warmer in the summer because the northern hemisphere is pointed toward the Sun
Our Sun will end its life as a white dwarf
The most extreme high and low tides occur when The Sun, Earth and Moon are lined up.
When the Sun, Moon, and Earth are in a direct line with each other, the tides are that result are called Spring Tides
As the moon revolves around the Earth, the moon _______ always keeps the same side facing Earth.
What is the debris from an impact that falls back to the surface of the Moon called? Ejecta
In December, the South Pole is tilted farther toward the Sun than at any other time of the year, and the North Pole is tilted its farthest away from the Sun. What is the northern hemisphere experiencing at that time? the winter solstice
How are Mercury and the Moon similar? both are covered with craters and plains
What is a piece of interplanetary material that burns up in Earth's atmosphere called? A meteor
What is a planet's backward motion in the sky called? retrograde motion
A planet's average distance from the Sun is also what part of the orbital ellipse The semimajor axis
The light we see fom the Sun comes from what layer Photosphere
When the chromosphere can be seen during a solar eclipse, what is its color? red
What is the net result of the proton-proton chain reaction in the core of the Sun? 4 hydrogen atoms are fused into 1 Helium atom, 2 neutrinos + energy
From where does most of the solar wind flow? Sunspots and flares
The brightness we observe from a star depends on two things luminosity and distance
In the Hertzspung-Russell diagram, 90% of stars, including the Sun, fall along a broad strip of the H-R diagram called Main sequence
The formation of a star begins with a cloud of interstellar gas and dust called nebula
What causes sunspots on the Sun? intense magnetic fields poking through the photosphere
The three parts of the Milky Way are the halo, bulge, and disk
What are the three classificiation of galaxies? spiral, elliptical, and irregular
What are the oldest objects in the Milky Way Global cluster
Quasars emit what type of spectra radio
The global winds have three basic zones which are the trade winds, prevailing westerlies and polar easterlies
Narrow bands of fast, high-altitude, westerly winds are called jet stream
What does Doppler radar monitor motion of moving raindrops
Energy is transferred throughout the atmosphere by the processes of Evaporation, condensation
Another name for thunderstorm clouds is cumulonimbus
In which layer of Earth's atmosphere is air most likely warmed by conduction thermosphere
True or False: The ozone is concentrated in the atmospheric layer called the mesosphere False
Wind shear that causes a sudden change in wind direction or speed can occur either vertically or horizontally. If it moves vertically is can form Tornado
During the summer and fall, the sunny tropics are the birthing grounds of large, rotating, low-pressure storms called cyclones
Lightning is the illumination that occurs when an invisible channel of negatively charged air descends to the ground and a channel of positively charged ions rushes upward to meet it. What is the channel of positively charged ions called? Ground stroke
Which process releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere? burning of fossil fuels
The process of photosynthesis moves carbon from the atmosphere to plant biomass
The primary cause of acid rain is burning of fossil fuels by humans
Which factor is most directly related to wind speed and direction difference in pressure over a region
Where is precipitation most likely to occur? on the leeward sides of mountains
A rise in the Earth's average global temperatures that may be due to increases in atmosphere CO2 caused by human activity is known as Greenhouse
A puddle of water disappears when the sun shines on it is an example of Evaporation
In the atmosphere, water vapor changes into liquid droplets, forming clouds. This is an example of Condensation
Rain turns into sleet as it falls through a cooler layer of the atmosphere is an example of Freezing
El Nino develops because of a weakening of what? The trade winds
What location receives the most solar radiation The tropics
What is the study of the Earth's climate and the factors that affect past, present, and future climatic changes called? climatology
Which way does the air circulate in a hurricane? counter-clockwise
What is the cause of thunder? the expansion of super heated air
The engine that drives thunderstorms is warm, moist air rising from the ground
The negative charge at the bottom of the cloud is most likely formed by a displacement in charge from the top to the bottom of the cloud
Created by: latimer