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Chapter 13

UAB Advanced Patho Objectives

Define innate or nonspecific immunity the natural resistance with which a person is born
Define Adaptive or specific immunity the second line of defense, responding less rapidly than innate immunity but more effectively
_______ are short-acting, biologically active, soluble molecules. The ability of cells of innate and adaptive immunity to communicate critical info. by cell-to-cell contact and initiate end effector responses is dependent upon the secretion of these. cytokines
_______ are mediators of the immune system (both innate and adaptive)! Cytokines
These control the MIGRATION of leukocytes to their primary cite of action in the immune response. Chemokines
These stimulate the growth and differentiation of bone marrow progenitors of immune cells colony-stimulating factors
The three phases of the complement system are: 1. initiation (or activation) 2. amplification (or inflammation) 3. membrane attack response
Innate immunity uses _______ receptors whereas adaptive immunity uses _____________ during the recognition of microbial molecules. identical mannose receptors; distinct antibodies
The germline genes of innate immunity use these two receptors: _______ and _______; whereas adaptive immunity uses ____-cell receptors to initiate b cell activity which matures into _____ cells and creates great diversity expressed thru recombination. toll-like receptor and mannose receptor (innate); B-cell (adaptive)
How do innate immunity NK cells know which cell is a pathogen (self versus non self) NK cells use MHC-I self-recognizing molecules to determine which cell should be killed.
How does adaptive immunity discriminate between self and non self? Lymphocytes use MHC-I and -II and foreign peptides (e.g. microbial peptides in recognition)
T or F: Each clone of lymphocytes expresses UNIQUE receptors. true
True or False. Effector cell types express identical receptors (e.g. neutrophils express toll-like receptors) true
When is the adaptive immune system activated? It is activated once the innate immune response initiates the inflammatory response process
True or false. The adaptive immunity is able to remember a pathogen and heightens immune response on subsequent encounters. True. It can stimulate lymphocytes and their products
Name cells of adaptive immunity Lymphocytes (B lymphocytes from bone marrow, T Lymphocytes from Thyroid), macrophages and dendritic cells - these play a role in innate AND adaptive(play role as APCs), and MHC which are not really cells but help to recognize self vs nonself
Macrophages and dendritic cells process and present antigen peptides to __________ cells of the adaptive immune system. CD4+ helper T cells
CD4+ cells stimulate ______ cells to mature and produce ____ cells that produce antibodies. B cells; plasma
T or F. CD8+ cells are cytotoxic and can cause delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV), and control of intracellular vial infections. true
How are immunoglobulins produced? By B-cells that mature into plasma cells!
The only Ig to cross the placenta is: IgG
This Ig is prominent in secretions including colostrum, and protects mucous surfaces IgA
This Ig is prominent in early immune responses and if elevated at birth, it is suspect of intrauterine infection was present and production by the developing fetus NOT from the mother. IgM (IgA can also be present with intrauterine infections)
This Ig is needed for the production of mature B-cells IgD
This Ig binds to mast cells and is involved in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions (hint: involved in type 1 hypersensitivity disorders) IgE
Adult levels of IgM are reached by what infant age? At 1 year of age
When does the liver begin blood production and in turn develops fetal immune system? 5 to 6 weeks during fetal development
____ are cytokines which primarily protect against viral infections and modulate the inflammatory response. Interferons
____ are cytokines that are produced by macrophages and lymphocytes to enhance acquired immunity! Interleukins
Try to name the components of the Innate Immunity! Epithelial barriers, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages
Pathogens contain cell membrane structures called pathogen-associated molecular patters (PAMPs) recognized by cells of the INNATE immune system bc they possess a limited # of germline-encoded _______ pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)
When a ______ receptors binds with a PAMP, proteins are produced that are important comments of the innate immune system. (these are used for pathogen recognition in the innate immune system!) Toll-Like receptor (TLC)
This is the process in which molecules COAT the cell membrane of the offending organism to activate phagocytosis Opsonization
Humoral immunity consists of ___ cells. B cells
Cell-mediated immunity consists of mainly ___ cells. T cells
This type of T cell HAS to be present in order for B cells to what they need to do. They are the master regulators for the immune system and release cytokines that recruit and activate CD8+ cytotoxic cells. CD4+ (helper T cells)
High levels of THIS Ig usually mean there has bene prior exposure and that they are protected IgG
The aging immune system is less responsive due to which of the following: decline in immune responsiveness, decrease in size of thymus gland, biological close in t-cells, altered responses of immune cells to antigen stimulation, or all of these listed... ALL OF THESE are reasons the aging immune system is less responsive.
A client experiences an allergic reaction. Select the immunoglobulin that would bind to mast cells and release histamine. IgE
Which of the types of T cells is responsible for destroying pathogens by punching holes in their cell membrane and by secreting cytokines/lymphokines cytotoxic CD8+ cells!
Created by: Sarahmarie001