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Chapter 12

UAB Advanced Patho Objectives

Define the terms host Host—any organism capable of supporting the nutritional and physical growth requirements of another organism
Define the term infectious disease. P. 252-253 Infectious disease—the disease state brought about by the interaction with another organism that causes harm to the host
Define the terms colonization, P. 252-253 Colonization—the presence and multiplication of a living organism on or within the host. Colonization does not cause harm to the host. Colonization DOES NOT mean infection
Define the terms microflora, P. 252-253 Microflora—bacteria inhabiting exposed surfaces of the body
Define the terms virulence P. 252-253 Virulence—the disease-inducing potential
Define the terms pathogens P. 252-253 Pathogens—microorganisms so virulent that they are rarely found in the absence of disease
Define the terms saprophytes P. 252-253 Saprophytes—free-living organisms obtaining their growth from dead or decaying organic material from the environment; humans are not usually affected by saprophytes
Define the terms opportunistic pathogens P. 252-253 Opportunistic pathogens—microorganisms that are capable of producing in infectious disease when the health and immunity of the host have been severely weakened by illness, malnutrition or medical therapy
Define the terms infection P. 252-253 Infection—the presence and multiplication of another living organism within a host WITH subsequent injury to the host
Describe the concept of host–microorganism interaction using the concept of commensalism P. 254-261 Commensalism: an interaction in which colonizing organisms acquire nutritional needs and shelter but the host body not affected by the relationship
Describe the concept of host–microorganism interaction using the concept of mutualism P. 254-261 an interaction in which the microorg & host both derive benefits from the interaction. Certain inhabitants of the human intenst. tract extract nutrients from host & secrete essential vitamin by-products i.e. Vit K. that are absorbed and used by the host.
Describe the concept of host–microorganism interaction using the concept of parasitic relationships P. 254-261 only the infecting organism benefits from the relationship If the host either gains nothing from the relationship or sustains injury or pathologic damage in the response to a parasitic infection, the process is called an infectious disease.
What are Prions REVIEW TABLE 12.2. P. 254 protein particles that lack any kind of a demonstrable genome, are able to transmit infection. Prions lack reproductive and metabolic functions, so the currently available antimicrobial agents are useless against them.
What can prions cause Slow progression, non-inflammatory neuronal degeneration: Ataxia, dementia, death over a period of months to years.
Examples of prions Transmissible neurodegenerative diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Kuru
What are viruses the smallest obligate intracellular pathogens. They have no organized cellurlar structures but instead consist of a protein coat, or capsid, surrounding a nuclei acid core, or genome, of RNA or DNA never both.
Examples of viruses members of the herpesvirus group and paramyxoviruses (influenza & poxviruses)
Can viruses replicate outside of a cell? Viruses cannot live outside of the cell. Must penetrate a susceptible living cell & use the biosynethic structure of the cell to produce viral progeny. Under the appropriate stimulation, undergoes active replication & produces s/s of dz mos-years later.
Examples of latent viruses Herpes viruses include the viral agents of chicken pox and zoster (varicella-zoster), HSV 1 & HSV 2, Cytomegalovirus infections, Roseola (human herpes virus 6), Infectious mononucleosis (IM), Epstein-Barr (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma (herpesvirus 8)
What is a bacteria? autonomously replicating unicellular organisms(prokaryotes). LACK an organized nucleus,has DNA and RNA. Can harbor extrachromosomal pieces of DNA called plasmids. plasmids contain genetic info, increases virulence or abx resistance of the organism.
How are bacteria classified in the lab? bacteria are generally classified according to the microscopic appearance and staining properties of the cell.
Gram negative stain characteristics: Gram-negative organisms- not stained by the crystal violet but counterstained red. Legionella pneumophila the bacterium responsible for Legionnaire disease is a gram negative rod.
Example of a gram negative bacteria Legionella pneumophila the bacterium responsible for Legionnaire disease is a gram negative rod.
Gram positive stain characteristics Gram-POSITIVE organisms- stained PURPLE
Example of a gram positive bacteria Strepococcus pyrogenes- grows in chains and stains purple
Characteristics of bacteria Prokaryotes (Bacteria), lack an organized nucleus, primitive, contain both DNA and RNA, plasmids (circular pieces of DNA), contain both cytoplasmic (cell) membranes and rigid cell walls
Characteristics of fungi Eukaryotes (Fungi), contain a membrane-bound (organized) nucleus, yeasts, single celled, reproduce by budding, Molds, produce long, hollow, branching filaments called hyphae
What are dimorphic fungi? dimorphic fungi: yeast at one temperature, molds at another temperature, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidom
List three types of parasites Protozoa—single celled animals with well defined nucleus and organelles Helminths—worms: roundworms, tapeworms, flukes Arthropods—ticks , mosquitoes, biting flies, etc.
How do parasites infect humans o These members of the animal kingdom infect and cause diseases in humans or other animals either directly or indirectly. o Infected animals may then transmit disease to humans.
What are Rickettsiaceae, Anaplasmataceae, Chlamydiaceae, Coxiella combine char. of viral & bacterial agents to produce dz. obligate intracellular pathogens (viruses), Produce a rigid peptidoglycan cell wall (bacteria), Reproduce asexually by cellular division (bacteria), Contain RNA and DNA (like bacteria and viruses)
Name a Rickettsiaceae—Tick born disease Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever; possibly Lyme disease (depend on the host cell for essential vitamins and nutrients. organisms transmitted to humans thru bite of arthropod (vector).
What does INCIDENCE mean???? Incidence is the RATE at which a certain event occurs. E.G. the number of new cases of a specific disease DURING A PARTICULAR PERIOD OF TIME in a population at risk.
What are the stages of a disease course? Incubation period, prodromal stage, acute stage, convalescent stage, and resolution stage (and subclinical or subacute)
What is the incubation period of a disease course? This is where the pathogen begins active replication without symptoms
What is the prodromal stage of a disease course? This is where INITIAL APPEARANCE OF SYMPTOMS begin and could be vague malaise and varies in duration for each host.
What is the acute state of a disease course? The host experiences the maximum impact of the infectious process. Fulminant illness is ABRUPT onset with little or no prodrome. Insidious is where the prodromal phase is prolonged.
What is the convalescent stage of a disease course? This is the containment of infection, *progressive* elimination of the pathogen, repair of damaged tissue, resolution of associated symptoms.
What is the resolution stage of a disease course? Total elimination of the pathogen without residual s/s of the disease.
What does subacute or subclinical mean regarding disease course? This is protracted or irregular course without clinical apparent symptoms.
Where does it affect? M. pneumonia—tuberculosis --> site: lungs
Where does it affect? N. gonorrhoeae (typically)—gonorrhea --> site: genital tract, oral pharynx
Where does it affect? H. pylori—gastric ulcers --> site: stomach
Where does it affect? N. meningitides—meningitis --> SYSTEMIC: brain, vascular system (meningococcemia), and other organs (common in children and young adults)
Where does it affect? S. typhi—typhoid fever --> SYSTEMIC: vascular, gastrointestinal
List portals of entry for a pathogen penetration (disruption in integrity of body's surface barrier, skin), ingestion/Oral ( an abscess), inhalation
What is a virulence factor? Substances or products generated by infectious agents that enhance their ability to cause disease.
List the categories of virulence factors (Four). Although a large number of microbial products fit this description, they can be grouped generally into four categories: toxins, adhesion factors, evasive factors and invasive factors.
What are toxins? Substances that alter or destroy the normal function of the host or host’s cells
What are EXOtoxins? proteins released from bacteria DURING cell growth, may cause many different types of symptoms, may produce nausea, vomiting (enterotoxins)
Bacteria exotoxins that produce vomiting and diarrhea are sometimes referred to as: enterotoxins. (ex e.coli)
What are ENDOtoxins? do not contain protein , are not actively released from the bacterium during growth, and have no enzymatic activity. A small amount of endotoxin in the circulatory system (endotoxemia) can induce clotting, bleeding, inflammation, hypotension, and fever.
The sum of the physiologic reaction to endotoxins is sometimes called: endotoxic shock
Which type of bacterial (gram neg or pos) can endotoxins found? in gram negative bacteria
What are adhesion factors? Allows the pathogen to attach and colonize. This is a passive process which is site specific, cell specific or nonspecific
What is the name of a mechanism which allows pathogens to avoid a host's defenses such as capsules, slime, surface proteins, or mucous layers? evasive factors
What facilitates the penetration of anatomic barriers? These are enzymes capable of destroying cellular membranes, connective tissue, and structural protein complexes Invasive factors
Compare exogenous to endogenous Exogenous comes from host's own microflora, and endogenous comes from water, food, air, soil, or animals, etc.
What is a hospital acquired infection called nosocomial
What are two criteria needed to diagnose an infectious disease? Recovery of a probable pathogen or evidence of its presence from the infected sites of a diseased host AND accurate documentation of clinical signs and symptoms compatible with an infectious process
What is the term used to describe the indirect means of identifying infectious agents by measurement of serum antibodies in the diseased host? Serology. Used for dx of leprosy and syphilis
What is the term used to describe specimen from the host in inoculated broth or onto the surface of an agar plate. Proprogation of a microbe outside of the body. Cultures. ex: for hep b
Real-time PCR specifically binds a target DNA and can be useful in determining the diagnosis of: ____. And why? C. diff. Quicker, more sensitive, and more specific and can assist the physician/provider in administering antibiotics more efficiently for people with diarrhea secondary to c. difficult
Name ways to diagnose an infectious disease? culturing, serology, antigen testing, metabolite testing, DNA or RNA sequencing, molecular detection
Name ways antibiotics prevent and kill bacteria Interference with cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, and normal metabolism
What does a bactericidal do? Causes irreversible and lethal damage to the bacterial pathogen (-cide means to KILL)
What does bacteriostatic classification mean? Inhibitory effects on bacterial growth are reversed when the agent is eliminated; depends on other assistance such as phagocytosis to kill bacteria SO these DEPEND on the immune system to come behind and "clean up" (-static means "still")
Which classification of antibiotic agent is needed for an immunocompromised patient and why? Bactericidal is needed for immunocompromised patients because the immune response cannot help with phagocytosis/cleaning up the bacteria (such as is needed with bacteriostatic drugs). Therefore bactericidal drugs are needed! VERY IMPORTANT TO KNOW THIS.
What are four classifications of drugs/target sites used as antibacterial agents? inhibition of cell wall, protein synthesis (ribosomes), nucleic acid synthesis (DNA), and normal metabolism (folic acid synthesis).
Which type of antiviral class agents were developed sole for tx of HIV protease inhibitors and nucleoside analog agents
Target site for anti fungal agents are: cytoplasmic membranes of of yeast or molds
Treatment of parasitic illnesses is based on exploiting essential components of the parasites metabolism or cellular anatomy that is ___________. and why?? not shared by the host. because any relatedness can increase the likelihood of toxic reactions in the host
Ways to treat infection that are non-pharmacological Surgical intervention: drain abscess, debridement, removal
Categories A, B, and C in bioterrorism are based on: risk of use, transmissibility, invasiveness, and mortality rate.
Which type of infection (bacteria, viral) can become oncogenic? (VERY IMPORTANT TO KNOW) and list an example of when this can happen Viral - some have the ability to transform normal host cells into malignant cells during the replication cycle. includes: certain retroviruses and DNA viruses such as herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and papovaviruses. HPV also can cause cervical CA
Created by: Sarahmarie001