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Cell Cycle and DNA

Cell Cycle (Mitosis and Meiosis) and DNA Structure and Function

TermDefinition
Cell Cycle A regular sequence of growth and division that cells go through; allows you to repair damaged and worn out cells, replace dead cells, and grow
Interphase The longest part of the cell cycle where the cell grows to its full size, DNA replicates, and the cell prepares to divide. The cell spends 90% of its life in Interphase
Mitosis The division of the nucleus; occurs in body cells. Broken into 4 phases (PMAT)
Prophase The first step of mitosis; chromatin condenses into chromosomes, the nuclear membrane disappears, and the spindle fibers form. Prophase = chromosomes pair up
Metaphase The second step of mitosis; spindle fibers attach to the centromeres and chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell,. Metaphase = middle
Anaphase The third step of mitosis; spindle fibers pull apart the chromatids. Anaphase = apart
Telophase The last part of mitosis; the nuclear membrane reforms, chromatids uncoil into chromatin. Telophase = two cells
Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm, which begins during telophase.
Chromosome A tightly coiled form of DNA (X)
Chromatid 1/2 of a chromosome (1/2 of the X)
Centromere Holds the two chromatids together
Centriole Tubes that release spindle fibers that attach to the chromosomes during mitosis
Adenine A nucleotide that pairs with Thymine to make up the "rungs" of the DNA ladder.
Thymine A nucleotide that pairs with Adenine to make up the "rungs" of the DNA ladder
Guanine A nucleotide that pairs with Cytosine to make up the "rungs" of the DNA ladder
Cytosine A nucleotide that pairs with Guanine to make up the "rungs" of the DNA ladder
Karyotype An image of the complete set of chromosomes of a cell, usually displayed as an arrangement of homologous chromosomes in descending order of size
Mutation A change in gene or chromosome, which could have beneficial, neutral, or negative effects on the organism
Gene mutation A change in a gene; occurs in body cells and is not passed on to offspring.
Chromosome mutation A change in a chromosome; occurs during meiosis and is passed on to offspring
Created by: Bella200