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Gas Exchange, Transport, Reproduction Concepts

What are the steps of gas exchange? Absorb O¬2¬ in lungs, deliver O2 to cells, absorb CO2 into blood, deliver CO2 to lungs
What are some adaptations that make gas exchange more efficient in the representative organisms? Skin breathing, expanding mouth cavity, diaphragm
Why is it that animals can go for days without eating but will die after only a few minutes without oxygen? Glucose/nutrients can be ‘scavenged’ from body tissue, but O2 can’t be stored
How do the representative organisms (minnow, plant, human) use gas exchange to maintain homeostasis? Various answers . . . see notes
Compare and contrast active and passive transport in organisms. Active transport uses energy and moves materials up the concentration gradient, passive uses no energy and moves materials down the concentration gradient.
Compare and contrast open and closed circulatory systems including advantages and disadvantages of each Open systems have no vessels, closed do. Both require a pump (heart) to circulate blood.
Describe animals with single and double loop circulation. Single loop circulation doesn’t allow blood to become repressurized, double loop does.
Describe the structure and function of arteries, veins, and capillaries, including information about blood pressure, vessel size, and the direction of the blood flow. Arteries are high pressure, thick-walled, and carry blood away from the heart. Veins are low pressure, thin-walled, and carry blood toward the heart.
Describe the pathway of blood flow through a mammalian heart. vena cava--> R atrium--> R ventricle--> pulm. artery--> lungs--> pulm. vein--> L atrium--> L ventricle--> aorta
What is the purpose of reproduction? Ensure the continuation of the species and the individuals’ DNA.
What are the similarities and differences between asexual and sexual reproduction? Asexual = no partner, simpler, no variation Sexual = partner, complex, more variation
How does the increase in genetic variation due to sexual reproduction allow organisms to evolve in response to a changing environment? More variation = greater chance that an advantageous trait will exist and be favored by natural selection.
What are the risks in raising monocultures? Higher chance of crop loss due to disease.
What are the similarities and differences between male and female sex cells? - Male cells (sperm) are small, motile, and haploid - Female cells (eggs) are large, stationary, and haploid
What are some examples of sexual selection? Deer antlers, bower bird nests, peacock tail feathers
What characteristics do many successful invasive species share? High rates of reproduction, few natural predators, generalists
What are the effects of invasive species to ecosystems? Loss of local biodiversity, various economic consequences
Created by: PLHSBiology1