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Chapter 4 Stars and Galaxies

Galaxy A large group of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity
Local Group Galaxies near enough to each other that they exhibit a gravitational pull on each other
Cluster Local groups near enough to each other to be considered neighbors
Doppler The apparent shift in frequency of periodic motion due to the motion of the emitter, receiver, or both
Constellation Pattern of stars in the sky
Absolute Magnitude The actual luminosity of a star
Apparent Magnitude The measure of the luminosity of a star from earth
Light Year The distance light travels in a year
Photosphere Lowest layer of Sun's atmosphere; from which light is given off
Chromosphere Sun's atmosphere just beyond the photosphere
Corona Outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere
Fusion The joining of atomic nucleii to form a larger element
Sunspot Region on the sun's surface which is cooler than surrounding surface
CME A massive burst of stellar wind and other ejecta from a star
Prominence A large, bright, gaseous feature extending outward from the Sun's surface, often in a loop shape
Solar Flare A large explosion in the sun's atmosphere
Main Sequence A continuous and distinctive band of stars that appears on plots of stellar color versus brightness
Nebula A large cloud of gas and dust in space
Giant An expanded version of a main sequence star; usually in the latter stages of a fusion sequence
White Dwarf When a low-mass star fuses all of its helium into carbon
Supergiant The result of a super-massive star expanding
Neutron Star The collapsed core of a supernova
Black Hole The collapse of a very massive neutron star results in this
Big Bang One theory for the beginning of the universe. All matter came into being in an instant, and expanded out from a single point.
Created by: MrGross