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What is reproduction? When living things reproduce more of their own kind.
What is a species? A group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce more of their own kind.
What is asexual reproduction? Only one organism is needed to produce a new organism. They can be single or multi-celled. The offspring look identical to the parent (starfish can reproduce in this way).
What is sexual reproduction? A male and a female are needed to produce offspring. Offspring have characteristics of both parents (ex.: dogs).
What are eggs? Sex cells produced by the female organism.
What are sperm? Sex cells produced by the male organism.
What is a perfect flower? A flower that has female and male parts.
What is a pistil? The complete female part of the flower. It's made up of stigma, style and ovary.
What is the stigma? The top part of the pistil, and it is sticky. (sticky stigma can catch pollen)
What is the style? Tube like structure that connects the stigma and the ovary. Pollen tube.
What is the ovary?y This is the bulging bottom part of the pistil, which contains one or more ovules. Seeds form in here.
What are ovules? They are located in the ovary. They contain eggs, which will eventually become seeds. The ovary becomes the fruit.
What is the staMEN? The complete male part of the flower (it has MEN in it). It is made up of the anthers and filaments.
What is the filaMENt? The stalk-like part of the stamen.
What is the anther? A knob-like part. It is the top of the filament.
What are the sepals? The leaf-like parts that help to protect the flower when it's in it's bud (PALS protect each other!).
What is a gamete? The name for sex cells.
What is fertilization? When the nucleus of a sperm links with the nucleus of an egg.
What is pollen? The powdery substance made by the anther. It is made up of many grains, and they are the sperm cell of the plant.
What are petals? The brightly colored part of the flower that attracts birds and insects.
What is pollination? The transfer of pollen from a male part of a flower to a female part of a flower. There are two types of pollination: cross and self.
What is self-pollination? Occurs in a perfect flower. The pollen from the male part falls on the female part within the same flower.
What is cross-pollination? Often occurs with different flowers. Pollen from one flower is carried to the pistil of a different plant. Can be transferred by wind, insects or birds.
What is germination? The sprouting of a new plant from a seed.
What are the first three of five steps of flower fertilization? 1. Pollen grain grows pollen tube toward ovary. 2. Sperm cells travel through pollen tube to ovary. May be many pollen tubes. 3. Pollen tube reaches ovary; sperm cell joins with egg cell. Egg is fertilized!
What are the two final steps of fertilization? 4. Inside ovule, fertilized egg divides many times. After multiple divisions, the seed forms. 5. Seeds form and ovary gets larger--can change into a fruit, pod or hard shell which protects seed.
What is an embryo? This is the name of a baby plant. Will grow into a new plant someday.
What is the endosperm? The stored food for the embryo.
What is dormant? It means something is inactive, or resting. A seed can remain dormant for a long time.
Who was Gregor Mendel? He was the father of genetics, pollinating pea plants to study inheritance.
Who was Walter Flemming? He discovered chromosomes, rod like structures in cells that duplicate themselves when the cells divide after fertilization. Chromosomes enable a cell to make an exact replica of itself.
What is genetics? The study of heredity.
What is heredity? The passing of traits from parent to offspring?
What is a trait? A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes. Ex.: hair color.
What are genes? A unit of chromosome that carries information determining the traits of an organism.
What is purebred? An organism that produces offspring with the same form of trait as the parent. Ex.: purebred short pea plants always produce short offspring.
What is hybrid? Offspring from parents having unlike forms of a trait. No organism has all dominant or all recessive genes.
What is a generation? All offspring produced by a set of parents.
What are alleles? Different forms of a gene?
What is a dominant allele? An allele whose trait always shows up in an organism when the allele is present. This allele has the most influence. Represented (in a Punnett Square) by capital letters.
What is a recessive allele? An allele that has the least influence. It is covered up or masked whenever the dominant allele is present. Represented by lower case letters in a Punnett Square.
What is a pure line? An organism whose genes for a certain trait are the same from both parents. This can be two dominant or two recessive genes.
Created by: carter hardwick



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