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Biology 21 Final

Distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. • Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having no nucleus, no membranebound organelles, cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane. Bacteria and Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells • Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having: - DNA in a nucleus that is
What are viruses? virus: infectious agent that consists of genetic information enclosed in a protein coat Virus: any of various submicroscopic agents that infect living organisms, often causing disease, and that consist of a single or double strand of RNA or DNA surrounde
What are the distinguishing features of Archaea? Where are they found? How do they obtain nutrition? • Single-celled, prokaryotic (simple cell structure) organisms: their cell walls are without peptidoglycan and they possess unique ribosome composition • Many are found in extreme environments, such as hot springs or high saline habitats. • Photoautotr
What are the distinguishing features of Bacteria? Where are they found? How do they obtain nutrition? • Single-celled, prokaryotic (simple cell structure) organisms; their cell walls are without peptidoglycan and they posses unique ribosome composition. Many are found in extreme environments, such as hot springs or highly saline habitats. - Extreme halop
What important ecological roles are played by bacteria? They are critical part of the great biogeochemical cycle that keep our ecosystem healthy. Many bacteria are great decomposer, recycling chemical (play an important role in Carbon and Nitrogen cycle). They decompose organic matter in soil and water and rel
. How are bacteria used by humans? Human insulin (for diabetic), fermentation to make yogurt and cheese, convert waste into fuel, make changes to DNA molecule, make transgenic plants
How are Protista distinguished from other Eukarya? • Eukaryotic (complex cell structure) organism, single-cell (unicellular) or composed of many similar cells. They are not defined as a plant, fungus or animal • There are 3 major groups: the plant-like algae (Algae are photosynthetic protists, autotrophi
What important ecological roles are played by various protists? Protists function as sources of food for organisms on land and sea. Protists are essential sources of nutrition for many other organisms. In some cases, as in plankton and on land terrestrial plants serve as primary producers. • Algae produce Oxygen in E
. How do humans use various protists? Protists are used in medicine and as food additives. • Diatom is use to processing food, toothpaste, paints, polishes • Red algae are use in some Asian cuisines.
What are the distinguishing features of Fungi? Where are they found? How do they obtain nutrition? • Fungi have eukaryotic cells. • They have cell walls with chitin. Fungi consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption • Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption. They secrete enzymes that break down organic matter outside
What important ecological roles are played by fungi? • Decomposer • They perform essential recycling of chemical elements between the living and nonliving world. Fungi as Mutualists • Fungi form mutualistic relationships with plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and animals • All of these relationships have pr
What are mycorrhizae and lichens? • A mycorrhizae is a mutualism between plant roots and soil fungi. The plant absorbs water and nutrients from the soil more efficiently with the aid of the fungus. The fungi obtain sugars and other nutrients from the plant. • A lichen is a symbiotic
How do humans use various fungi? Food (eat Morels, shiitake mushrooms, chanterelles, and truffles Medicine (penicillin and antibiotic) Farming (biological insecticides) Fermentation of grains to make beers and of fruits to make wines
What challenges does life on land present for living organisms? • Obtaining water and mineral nutrients. • Transporting and retaining water. • Support: standing up against gravity. • Fertilization: getting sperm to eggs. • Dispersal of offspring.
How are different groups of plants adapted to life on land? • Most plants obtain water and minerals from the soil through their roots. • Some absorb them through their leaves or other structures • Most plants have vascular tissue - specialized cells that rapidly move water through the plant. • Most plant leave
What important ecological role do plants play? Plants are primary producer. Plants make the food that almost all terrestrial (and some freshwater and marine) organisms depend on. They provide food and habitat for other organisms, remove CO2 from the atmosphere and produce O2.
How are plants important to humans? • Human rely on plant for food, lumber, clothing, paper and many other resources such as fuel, Resins, Rubber, Medicines, Dyes, Scents, Gardens Recreation Inspiration • Plants help to prevent soil erosion and water pollution, clean the soil by absorbing
How is water transported through vascular plants? • Water is evaporated into dry air • Eater uptake by growing cells (cohesion in Xylem) • Water uptake from soil by roots Water is pulled up to leaves in Xylem, the vascular tissue that transport xylem sap(consist water and dissolved minerals). Leaves l
How do plants defend themselves from herbivores? • Sharp spines, • Tough leathery leaves • Poisonous chemicals in their tissues • Chemicals that act as hormone analogues to interfere with insect larval development.
How is the Kingdom Animalia distinguished from the other kingdoms? • They are multicellular organism, heterotrops • Most animals ingest their food, breakdown in a digestive tract, absorb nutrient, and eliminate waste (digest their food internally) • Animals have blastula stage of development • They do not have cell wa
Describe the life-cycle of a typical animal. After fertilization, the diploid zygote (first cell of the new organism) divides rapidly. The early animal embryo begins as a solid ball of cells that quickly hollow out to from blastula (a sphere of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity) and develop to
Distinguish between radial and bilateral symmetry. Radial symmetry: body form in which parts are arranged around a central An animal with radial symmetry could be divided into equal portions from the center, in the same way that you could cut a pie into wedges. An animal with radial symmetry really has
What is a coelom? What are the advantages of having an internal body cavity? Coelom: fluid-filled animal body cavity that forms completely within mesoderm The coelom allow organism to grow and move independently of the outer body layer The coelom’s chief advantage is flexibility. As internal organs such as the heart, lungs, live
What is the most diverse phylum of animals? Arthropoda (spiders, insects, crustaceans)
Which phyla of animals do humans commonly eat? chordates, including fishes, birds & mammals.
Identify other products and benefits humans obtain from animals. Pets provide companionship, whereas other animal provide food in the form of milk, cheese, meat, eggs. Animals also play important roles in ecosystem. They graze on vegetation, scavenge dead organic matter, till the earth, control the population of other
What is ecology? Ecology: study of relationships among organisms and the environment. the interactions of organisms and their environments.
Distinguish among population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere. Population: a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area. Community: all the organisms of all species in a particular area. Ecosystem: the community and its physical environment. Focus is on matter and energy. Biosphere: all of
What is a carrying capacity? The carrying capacity (K) is the maximum number of individuals of a species that can be supported by the environment
. How do real populations vary over time? Populations’ size and density change over time. Populations can increase because of births or immigration. Populations can decrease through deaths or emigration.
How do growth rates vary in different human populations today? Overall, the human population growth rate is about 1.1% per year and declining. In less-developed countries, birthrates are high and death rates are low, producing rapid population growth, as economic development increases, birthrates decline and populati
How does age structure vary in different human populations? • In India and many other less-develop countries, a large fraction of the population in entering its reproductive, suggesting a high potential for future growth. • In the Us and other developed countries, the population consist mainly of older individual
How does age structure affect population growth? - A pyramid shape indicates the population has high birthrates; the population is undergoing exponential growth. - A bell shape indicates that prereproductive and reproductive age groups are more nearly equal, with the postreproductive group being smal
Outline the demographic transition model of population growth. Demographic transition model refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system Stage 1: pre-industrial society. Death rates and birth r
What is density dependent population limitation? What factors can act in this manner? Density dependent have the greatest effect on crowed populations. Most such factors are biotic, or living. Density dependent factors may be intrinsic (depending only on the population itself) or extrinsic (depending on other species): competition for reso
What is density independent population limitation? What factors can act in this manner? Density independent means that the population is affected equally regardless of population density. Most such factors are abiotic such as natural disasters, industrial accidents, habitat destruction
Why are some members of a community called keystone species? What is an example? Keystone species: a type of organism that makes up a small portion of the community yet has a large influence on community diversity. One example of a keystone species is the sea otter, which plays a critical role in the vast underwater kelp forests that
What is community species diversity? What factors are associated with higher/lower diversity. • The species diversity of a community is the variety of organisms that make up the community • Species diversity is associated with a variety of factors, including latitude, area, climate, heterogeneity, disturbance, and others.
What is coevolution? Coevolution: genetic change in one species selects for subsequent change in the genome of another species
What is ecological succession? Ecological succession is the sequence of community and ecosystem changes after a disturbance.
Describe how ecological succession would likely occur on an abandoned farm in the eastern US. Secondary succession likely occurs on an abandoned farm in the eastern US. Community is disturbed but not destroys; some soil and life remain. Crab grass colonizes first (0-1 years), tall grass and herbaceous plant established (1-3 years), pine invades (3
What is a climax community? What is a fire-climax community? Give an example. Climax communities: is a community that remains fairly constant. are relatively stable, but may continue to change over very long periods and are composed of patches in different stages of succession. EXAMPLE - Tundra, grassland, desert, and the deciduou
What is a food web? What is a food chain? What are trophic levels? Food chain: link trophic levels from primary producers to top carnivores. Food web: is a branching food chain with complex trophic interactions. Trophic levels: is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it.
Distinguish between primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and decomposers. Primary producer (autotroph): species forming the base of a food web Primary consumer (herbivores ): eat primary producers Secondary consumer (carnivores): eat primary consumers (meat-eater) Decomposer (detritivore): organism that consumes wastes and d
Distinguish among herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore. Herbivore: an animal that feed mainly on plants. EXAMPLE- Sheep, Cow, Deer Carnivore: are animals that eat other animals. EXAMPLE- Lion, Shark, Eagle, Owl, Spider Omnivore: an organism that eat both plants and animals. This means that they are opportuni
Describe an energy pyramid, explaining why there is less productivity at higher levels in the pyramid and giving examples of organisms found at each level. An energy pyramid represents each trophic level as a block whose sizes is directly proportional to the energy stored in that level. An energy pyramid represents the loss of energy with each transfer in a food chain. Because every organism losses heat to t
About how much energy is transferred from one level to the next in an energy pyramid? 10%
Outline the biogeochemical cycles of water, carbon, and nitrogen Water Cycle • Water is essential to all organisms. • 97% of the biosphere’s water is contained in the oceans, 2% is in glaciers and polar ice caps, and 1% is in lakes, rivers, and groundwater. • Water moves by the processes of evaporation, transpiratio
What is primary productivity? Primary productivity: in an ecosystem is the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time period.
What is the greenhouse effect? What is global warming? Greenhouse effect: increase in surface temperature caused by carbon dioxide and other atmospheric gases Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning
What are the main causes and consequences of global warming? • The main causes is the accumulation of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, gas; tropical deforestation and other combustion activities . • Consequences: Earth’s average temperature is rising; polar ice is melting, sea level is
What is a biome? A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups, which are adapted to that particular environment.
What are the main factors that determine where biomes occur? Energy (sunlight, temperature and moisture), nutrient, and fire
Distinguish among population, species, community, and habitat. Population: interbreeding members of the same species occupying the same region Species: a distinct type of organism Community: is a group or collection of organisms that live together in the same location and interact with each other. Habitat: place w
Distinguish among uniform, clumped, and random population distribution patterns. • In a clumped dispersion, individuals aggregate in patches. A clumped dispersion may be influenced by resource availability and behavior • A uniform dispersion is one in which individuals are evenly distributed. It may be influenced by social interactio
What is a survivorship curve? Distinguish among Type I, II, and III survivorship curves. Survivorship curve is a graphic way of representing the proportion of individuals surviving to any age Type I: late-loss; low death rates during early and middle life, then an increase among older age groups Type II: constant-loss; the death rate is co
What four factors affect population growth or decline? • Birth rate (number of reproductive episodes per lifetime, number of offspring per reproductive episode, age at first reproduction, population age structure) • Death rate (accident, disease, predation, nutrient availability) • Emigration (come out): av
What is the population situation in India? In Japan? In Kenya? In the US? • In India: continue to grow because a high proportion of individuals are in the youngest age classes • In Japan: Population is shrinking, a high proportion of individuals are elderly people, and birth rate is very low. • In Kenya: both birth rates (f
What is symbiosis? Symbiosis: one species living in or on another The specific biological interactions of symbiosis can be subdivided in three: * Mutualism, where both organisms benefit. * Commensalism, where only one of them benefits, but the other is not affected.
Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic. Autotrophic: An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances using light or chemical energy. Get their energy from non-living sources such as the sun and carbon dioxide. EXAMPLE-plant, algae, and some bacteria Heterotrophic: l
What is biodiversity? Biodiversity: the variety of life on Earth Biodiversity is the total number of species, their variable genes, and their ecosystems
What is mass extinction? Mass extinction: the extinction of a large number of species within a relatively short period of time
What are the main causes of species extinction? Habitat destruction/loss Introduced species-are those humans move from native location to new geographic regions. Without their native predators, parasites, and pathogens introduced species may spread rapidly Pollution Overexploitation-is human harvest
How do people benefit from biodiversity? We use a wide variety of other organism for food, shelter, energy, clothing, and drugs. • Microbes carry out indispensable tasks, from digesting food in our intestines, to decaying organic matter in soil, to fixing nitrogen, to producing oxygen • Plan
Why should we be concerned about the loss of biological diversity in the world today? The loss of biological diversity in the world is threating many species to extinction and our own existence is dependence on biological diversity
What factors contribute to your carbon footprint? Driving, shower, watching tv, using Iphone, washing clothes, using the dish washer (Number of miles using by car or airplane and home utilities)
Created by: chris2000