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Ch. 1

Adventures in Japanese 3

JapaneseEnglish
ことわざ proverb
十人十[じゅうにんと]いろ lit. "10 men 10 colors" (can be interpreted as "many men, many tastes")
かえるの子はかえる lit. "a frog's child is a frog" (similar to "the apple doesn't fall far from the tree." Also can be interpreted as "parents should not expect more of their children than they themselves can achieve")
ねこにこばん lit. "to give gold to a cat" (similar to "to cast pearls before swine")
さるも木からおちる lit. "even monkeys fall from trees" (can be interpreted as "anyone can make a mistake")
三日ぼうず lit. "a monk for 3 days" (describes an unsteady and unreliable worker, or someone who is unable to stick with something)
ばかにつけるくすりはない lit. "there is no medicine for stupidity; there is no cure for an idiot"
いしの上にも三年 lit. "even a stone will get warm if you sit on it for 3 years" (can be interpreted as "any obstacle can be overcome with perseverance")
となりのはなはあかい lit. "the flowers next door are red" (similar to "the grass is greener on the other side")
はなよりだんご lit. "dumplings instead of flowers" (can be interpreted as "physical needs come before aesthetic ideals")
まけるがかち lit. "a defeat is a win"
海[うみ]よりふかい母のあい lit. "a mother's love is deeper than the ocean"
ちりもつもれば山となる lit. "even dust amassed will make a mountain" (can be interpreted as "a large goal can be achieved through many small efforts")
[カン] China (during Han Dynasty)
[ジ] character, writing
[あね, ねえ] older sister
[いもうと] younger sister
[あに, に] older brother
[おとうと] younger brother
[あさ, チョウ] morning
[ひる, チュウ] daytime
明(るい) [あか(るい)] is bright
[キョ] past
[ギン] silver
[シ] to serve
[ちち, とう, フ] father
[はは, かあ, ボ] mother
[セン, さき] first; previous
家族 [かぞく] family
友達 [ともだち] friend
質問 [しつもん] question
答え [こたえ] answer
宿題 [しゅくだい] homework
試験 [しけん] exam
昨日 [きのう] yesterday
(ご)兄弟 [(ご)きょうだい] siblings (go adds politeness)
ホストファミリー host family
お父さま father (polite)
お仕事 [おしごと] job (polite)
銀行 [ぎんこう] bank
去年 [きょねん] last year
上手 [じょうず] skillful
下手 [へた] unskillful
苦手 [にがて] be poor at
犬もあるけばぼうにあたる lit. "even dogs run into sticks/poles" [can be interpreted as "good/bad luck comes unexpectedly."]
祖父 [そふ] one's own grandfather
祖母 [そぼ] one's own grandmother
叔父 [おじ] uncle
叔母 [おば] aunt
ようちえん kindergarten
物り [ぶつり] physics
か学 [かがく] chemistry
りか science
文学 [ぶんがく] literature
れきし history
(schoolを)そつぎょうする to graduate from school
せんこうする to major (in)
~しか + Neg. nothing/nobody/no~ but~; only~ [immediately follows the word being emphasized; suggests fewness or exclusiveness; replaces を, が, は, replaces or follows へ and に, and follows で, と, から, まで, etc. かかる may be used w/ しか but not だけ]
こちらこそ。 It is I, (not you.) [emphasis]
行って来ます。 Used by a family member who leaves home for the day.
行ってらっしゃい。 Used by a family member who sees off another family member for the day.
ただいま。 I'm home. [Used by family member who has come home]
お帰りなさい。 Welcome home. [Used by a family member when welcoming another family member home]
おやすみ(なさい)。 Good night.
お先[さき]に。 Excuse me for going/doing something first.
しつれいします。 Excuse me, I must be going now.[lit. "I will be rude"]/Excuse me for interrupting.
しつれいしました。 I am sorry to have inconvenienced you/ for the rude act I have committed.
人じん carrot
Verb OO form Let's do~; Shall we do~? [informal version of the ~ましょう form]
だろう probably is [informal version of でしょう]
朝食[ちょうしょく] breakfast
昼食[ちゅうしょく] lunch
夕食[ゆうしょく] dinner; supper
何でも anything
いつでも anytime
どこでも anywhere
~の。 Female sentence ending particle in informal speech (also used by children); expresses emphasis or emotion, or used as a question marker instead of か when uttered with a rising intonation. When used w/ の, な replaces だ.
~か/かい? Male informal sentence ending particle; だ is omitted before either particle.
Verb て form +くれ Male informal form of 下さい.
~って Informal/ conversational form of quotation particle と.
かえる to change
つかう to use
Noun 1の Noun 2 の separates a modifier from the noun it modifies, or is used in situations where the 1st noun clarifies or helps define the 2nd noun (ex: ともだちのみちこ= my friend Michiko).
Occupationを している。 lit. "doing the work of (occupation)"
Interrogative Noun(+へ, に, で, と, から, etc.)でも+ Affirmative Predicate。 When でも is attached to a question word and followed by a affirmative ending, を, が, and は are not used. Other particles precede でも.
Interrogative Noun(+へ, に, で, と, から, etc.)も+ Negative Predicate。 When a question word is followed by も and a negative predicate, を, が, and は do not appear before も.
Verb て form +る い is often dropped from います/ いる in informal speech when it follows the て form of a verb. Should not be used in formal writing.
~わ。 Female sentence ending particle; adds softness to the message of the sentence, and may express light assertion; used in both formal and informal speech.
~ぞ/~ぜ/~さ/~よ。 Used in informal male speech only; expresses assertion & means "I tell you," "You know." だ is used after nouns and な adj. before ぞ, ぜ, and よ.
わ/の+ よ/ね。 わ and の may precede よ and ね in informal female speech; adds a degree of softness to a sentence.
Created by: robinav