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Production Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
What are the characterics of ground water?*** Harder than surface water, less turbidity, less suspended solids, more dissolved solids, less color and much less microbial contamination
What are the characteristics of surface water?*** Softer, more turbidity, more suspended solids, less dissolved solids, more color, much more microbial contamination
Name some ground water pollutants: Leaking underground tanks, leaking sewers, and land fills in recharge areas
Name some surface water pollutants: Algae blooms, toxic waste from discharges into rivers, sewage plants and pesticide run off from agriculture
What types of pumps are used in water production? Centrifugal, piston, rotary and chemical feed
What are cavitations?*** Water boiling inside the pump due to low pressure.
What is the relationship between capacity and head in a pump? Capacity is the amount of fluid a pump can move. Head is the height that a pump can raise fluid vertically.
How is water collected from surface and water facilities? By using pumps or hydraulic lifts
What is Ohms Law? The mathematical relationship between voltage, current, and resistance
What two forms does electric appear in? AC (alternating current) & DC (direct current)
Why is disinfection needed?*** To kill microbes and pathogens to a safe level
What are some methods of disinfection? Chlorination (most widely used), chloramines (chlorine plus ammonia), chlorine dioxide (chlorine and sodium chlorite), ultraviolet (used on mostly on waste water), ozone (requires gas prep unit and a power source)
Name two disinfectant test procedures: N,N-diethyl-phenyene-diamine (DPD) Sample turns pink if cl2 is present. Amperometric titration is the most accurate.
What is the purpose of a well and an intake structure? To pull and store water for a power plant from a local water source, usually a river or dam (intake structure) or from an excavated hole in the ground (well)
How are wells and intake structures different and how are they the same? Differences: Intake structures use surface water, wells use ground water Similarities: They both store water to be used for drinking and other purposes
Tablets used to neutralize the chlorine residual are called.*** Sodium Thiosulfate
What is a rotometer used for?*** To MEASURE the flow of chlorine
What is a chlorinator used for? To regulate the flow of chlorine
What is CT Value or Contact Vallue The chlorine residual in ppm times the contact time in minutes.
What are cross connections?*** Any connection through which contaminants can enter the potable water system
What is the difference between direct and indirect cross connection? Direct cross connections are subject to back pressure (impurities blown/pushed into the system) Indirect cross connections are not subject to back pressure (impurities sucked/pulled into the system)
How do you prevent cross connections? Implement a backflow prevention program, educate the distribution system's personnel and the public, and install back flow preventers where needed
What are the hazards of cross connections?*** Fluids other than potable water can enter into the distribution system. These fluids can contain radioactive materials, toxins and diseases.
What are the various types of storage facilities?*** Elevated, stand pipe, and clear wells
What is a water shed? An area of land that feeds all the water running under it and draining off of it into a larger body of water.
How does topography effect water? Topography determines where and how water flows
What is the disadvantage of UV disinfectant? It leaves no residual
What is anthracite?*** Filter media made from coal
What does Red color in water indicate?*** Iron
What two chemicals are used to flouridate water? Hydroflousilic acid and sodium flourite
Depression produced in the water table is called?*** The cone of depression
Small water meters have an accuracy of + or - 1.5% to + or - 3%
List 3 types of water storage facilities: Elevated tank, clear wells, stand pipe
What does MCL & MCLG stand for?*** Maximum Contaminant Level & Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
A the Operator Certification Act is act number______ of ________ Title number_______ and section number_______*** Act number 538 of 1972 Title number 48 Section number 40
What is unidirectional flushing? To work outwards in one direction
How many times can a lead gasket for a chlorinator be used*** One time
How many turns does it take to fully open a chlorine bottle?*** One turn
How many feet should fire hydrants be located apart?*** 500 feet
How many feet apart should shut off valves be?*** 1000 feet
The type of fire hydrant most often used is a:*** Dry barrel
A valve used to regulate flow is a Globe valve
Road signs in a work zone should be:*** 200 feet apart
Types of tastes and odors produced by algae include: Fishy, aromatic, grassy, septic, musty and earthy
What is a lock out warning tag and when should they be used? Required by OSHA; MUST be used on equipment is that can unexpectedly start or release stored energy
How many hours can a employee can be exposed to a noise level of 85 decibels without ear protection? 8 hours
What should always be used beside excavations near roads? Baracades
How many people are needed to enter a confined space? 3 (a supervisor to sign off and two workers)
Who is responsible for an emergency operation plan? The Utility Manager
List five corrosive chemicals? Chlorine, Hydrochloric Acid, Sulfuric Acid, Sodium Hydroxide, and Calcium Hypochlorite.
How deep does an excavation has to be before it requires shoring?*** 5 feet
How far should ladders extend above excavations?*** 2.5 to 3 feet
A ladder must be with within how many feet of a worker at all times?**" 25 feet
All excavations difficult to enter or exit must have what?*** Ladders
Sweat plus chlorine gas makes what? Hydrochloric acid
How does Aluminium sulfate also known as Alum effect pH It lowers the pH greatly
The regent used to determine pH with a chlorometer: Phenol red
The zeolite process is regenerated using?*** Brine
Manganese greensand filters are used to remove: Manganese and iron
What is the desired amount of fluoride in water? 1 ppm
How many degrees should three packing rings be staggered apart?**" 120 degrees
What is a multimeter used for? Measuring volts, amps and ohms
How many pounds of chlorine should be pulled from a 150 pound bottle a day? 40 pounds
A multi stage pump can create a lot of what? Head pressure
What does CFR mean? Code of Federal Regulations
Chloramines is a combination of what two chemicals?***and Chlorine plus Ammonia
What are the two forms of chloramines? Monochloramines and Dichloramines
What are the advantages of chloramines? Chloramines reduces the formation of DPDs, carries a stable residual throughout system and help reduce taste and odor in water
What's the disadvantages of chloramines? Not as effective as chlorine
Name 3 methods of chlorination and their advantages and disadvantages: Chlorine Gas - adv: cheap and easy to use disadv: dangerous but safer then gas/ Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH) granular & gor swimming pools- adv: dangerous dis adv: expensive Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach) adv: safer than gas disadv: expensive
What does PEL mean? What is the PEL for chlorine gas Permissible Exposure Limit; 0.5 ppm
What does IDHL mean? what is the IDHL for chlorine gas? Inherently/Immediately Dangerous to Health and Life; 10 ppm
What chemicals are used to absorb chlorine spills? Caustic soda or hydrated lime
To avoid freezing chlorine gas you should never do this: Don't over feed
Never use this around chlorine: Grease or oil (petroleum products)
Any thing below the top of the ground water table is called; The ZONE OF SATURATION
Never go into a room containing chlorine gas without one of these? Self Contained Breathing Apparatus or SCBA
What is the disadvantage of UV disinfectant? It leaves no residual
What is anthracite? Filter media from coal
How often should small water meters should be tested? Every 5 to 10 years
What two chemicals are used to fluoridated water? Hydroflousilic acid and sodium flourite
A depression produced in the water table is called? The cone of depression
How often should large water meters be tested? Every 1 to 4 years
List 3 types of water storage facilities: Elevated tank, clear wells and stand pipe
What does MCL & MCLG stand for? Maximum Contaminant Level & Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
What is unidirectional flushing ? To work outwards in one direction
How many times can a lead gasket for a chlorinator be used ? One time
How many turns does it take to fully open a chlorine bottle ? One turn
How many feet should Fire hydrants be located apart ? 500 feet
How many feet apart should shut off valves be ? 1,000 feet
The type of fire hydrant most often used is a ? Dry barrel
A valve used to regulate flow is a? Globe valve
Road signs in a work zone should be how many feet apart? 200 feet
What is a lock out warning tag and when should they be used? Required by OSHA; Must be used on equipment is that can unexpectedly start or release stored energy
How many hours can an employee be exposed to a noise level of 85 decibels without ear protection? 8 hours
What should be used beside excavations near roads? Baricades
How many people are needed to enter a confined space? 3 people (a supervisor to sign off and two workers)
Who is responsible for an emergency operation plan? The utility manager
List five corrosive chemicals. Chlorine, Hypochloric Acid, Sulfuric Acid, Sodium Hydroxide, and Calcium Hypochlorite
How deep does excavation have to be before it require shoring? 5 feet
How far should ladders extend above excavations? 2.5 to 3 feet
A ladder must be within how many feet of a worker at all times 25 feet
All excavations difficult to enter or exit must have what? A ladder
Sweat plus chlorine gas makes what? Hydrochloric acid
How does aluminum sulfate also known as alum effect pH? It lowers the pH greatly
What regeant is used to determine pH with a chlorometer? More than 12 inches
What year did the SAFE DRINING WATER ACT pass? 1974
Manganese green sand filters are used to remove? 10 feet or 1 foot verticle
What is the desired amount of fluoride in water? 1 ppm
How many degrees should three packing rings be staggered? 120 degrees
What is a multimeter used for? Measuring volts, amps, and ohms
How many pounds of chlorine should be pulled from a 150 pound bottle a day? 40 pounds
A multi-stage pump can create a lot of what? Head pressure
What does CFR mean? Code of Federal Regulations
Chloramines is a combination of what two chemicals? Chlorine and Ammonia
What are two forms of chloramines Monochloramines and Dichloramines
What are the advantages of chloramines? Chloramines reduces the formation of DBPs, carries a stable residual throughout the system, and removes taste and odors.
What is the disadvantage of chloramines? It's not as effective as chlorine
Name 3 methods of chlorination and their advantages and disadvantages; Chlorine Gas; +cheap and easy to use - dangerous but safer than gas / Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH); + granular, used in swimming pools - expensive/ Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach) safer than gas - expensive
What does PEL mean and what is the PEL for chlorine gas? Permissible Exposure Limit; 0.5 ppm
What does IDHL mean and what is the IDHL for chlorine gas? Inherently/Immediately Dangerous to Health and Life; 10 ppm
What chemicals are used to absorb chlorine spills? Caustic soda or hydrated lime
To avoid freezing chlorine gas you should never do this; Over feed
Never use this around chlorine? Grease or oil (petroleum products)
Anything below the top of the ground water table is called? The zone of saturation
Never go into a room containing chlorine without one of these? Self Contained Breathing Apparatus or SCBA
Surface water is usually really low in these? Minerals and gases
Chemicals like copper sulfate, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and Potassium Permanganate are used for what? Treating algae
The final goal of coagulation is to remove what? Turbidity
What 2 pathogens are resistant to disinfectants? Cryptosporidium & Giardia
What is back flow? When water backs up in the opposite direction of normal flow (system pressure should be 50 psi; customer pressure should be 75 psi)
How can back flow be prevented? With a back flow preventer (it must tested yearly)
What is back siphonage? When water backs up in the opposite direction due to negative pressure within the system
How can back siphonage be prevented? With a vacuum breaker (must be tested yearly)
What is the best method for preventing cross connections? An air gap
How much room should an air gap have? Two times the pipe diameter or two inches which ever is greater
What is the Zone of Aeration? The dry soil or rocks located between the ground surface and the top of the water table
What is the Zone of Saturation? The rocks and soil below the ground surface and the water table
What is a grab sample? A sample of river, stream or freshwater wetland water collected for the purpose of analyzing its constituent water chemistry.
Created by: Bmcguire64