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Chp. 23 & 24

Vocab for 23 & 24 Biology

Halophile An organism that can grow in, or favors environments that have very high salt concentrations
Bacillus A rod-shaped bacterium
Coccus A sphere-shaped bacterium
Spirillum A spiral-shaped bacterium
Streptococcus A coccus that grows with others in chains
Virulent Describes a microorganism that causes disease and that is highly infectious; strictly, refers only to viruses that reproduce by the lytic cycle
Oncogene A gene that produces cancer, or uncontrolled cell proliferation
Viroid An infectious agent that is made up of a short, circular, single strand of RNA that does not have a capsid; the smallest known particle that is able to replicate
Prion An infectious particle that consists only of a protein and that does not contain DNA or RNA
Virus A nonliving, infectious particle composed of a nucleic acid and a protein coat; it can invade and destroy a cell
Envelope A membranelike layer that covers the capsids of some viruses
Retrovirus A virus that contains single-stranded RNA and produces a reverse transcriptase, which converts RNA to DNA
Bacteriophage A virus that infects bacteria
Lytic cycle A method of viral replication that results in the destruction of a host cell and the release of many new virus particles
Virulent lysis The event of a phage enzyme called a lysozyme digesting the cell wall, and up to to 200 new phage particles bursting from the bacterial cell
Lysogenic cycle A method of viral replication in which a viral genome is replicated as a provirus without destroying the host cell
Temperate virus A virus whose replication includes the lysogenic cycle
Prophage The viral genome (DNA) of a bacteriophage that has entered a bacterial cell, has become attached to the bacterial chromosome, and is replicated with the host bacterium's DNA
Inactivated virus A commercially-prepared vaccine against various viral infections
Attenuated virus A vaccine created by reducing the virulence of a pathogen, but still keeping it viable
Vector In biology, any agent, such as a plasmid or a virus, that can incorporate foreign DNA and transfer that DNA from one organism to another; an intermediate host that transfers a pathogen or a parasite to another organism
Antibiotic A substance that inhibits the growth of or kills microorganisms
Conjugation In algae and fungi, an exchange of genetic material that occurs between two temporarily joined cells; in prokaryotes, the process by which two organisms bind together and one cell transfers DNA to the other cell through a structure called a sec pilus
Obligate anaerobe An organism that needs the absence of oxygen in order to live
Facultative anaerobe An organism that can live with or without oxygen
Exotoxin A potent, extracellular toxin secreted by some gram positive bacteria
Endotoxin A toxin that occurs in the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria and that is released when the bacterial cell breaks apart
Antibiotic resistance The ability of a population of bacteria to survive the lethal effects of an antibiotic
Pathology The scientific study of disease
Created by: CareGraceR



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