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Vocab 23 and 24

Microorganisms

TermDefinition
Halophile An organism that can grow in, or favors environments that have very high salt concentrations
Bacillus A rod-shaped bacterium
Coccus A sphere-shaped bacterium
Spirillum A spiral-shaped bacterium
Streptococcus A coccus that grows with others in chains; examples include cocci of the disease-causing species (streptococcus mutans
Virulent Describes a microorganism that causes disease and that is highly infectious; strictly, refers only to viruses that reproduce by the lytic cycle
Oncogene A gene that induces cancer, or uncontrolled cell proliferation
Viroid An infectious agent that is made up of a short, circular, singe strand of RNA that does not have a capsid; the smallest known particle that is able to replicate
Prion An infectious particle that consists only of a protein and that does not contain DNA or RNA
Virus A nonliving, infectious particle composed of a nucleic acid and a protein coat; it can invade and destroy a cell
Envelope A membranelike layer that covers the capsids of some viruses
Retrovirus A virus that contains single-stranded RNA and produces a reverse transcriptase, which converts RNA to DNA
Bacteriophage A virus that infects bacteria
Lytic Cycle A method of viral replication that results in the destruction of a host cell and the release of many new virus particles
Virulent Cycle virulent and lytic can be used almost interchangeably
Lysogenic Cycle A method of viral replication in which a viral genome is replicated as a pro-virus without destroying the host cell
Temperate Virus A virus whose replication includes the lysogenic cycle
Prophage The viral genome (DNA) of a bacteriophage that has entered a bacterial cell, has become attached to the bacterial chromosome, and is replicated with the host bacterium's DNA
Inactivated Virus an inactivated vaccine consists of virus particles, bacteria, or other pathogens which are grown in culture and then killed using a method such as heat or formaldehyde
Attenuated Virus Attenuation takes an infectious agent and alters it so that it becomes harmless or less virulent. These vaccines contrast to those produced by killing the virus
Vector In biology, any agent, such as a plasmid or a virus, that can incorporate foreign DNA and transfer that DNA from one organism to another; an intermediate host that transfers a pathogen or a parasite to another organism
Antibiotic A substance that inhibits the growth of or kills microorganisms
Conjugation In algae and fungi, an exchange of genetic material that occurs between two temporarily joined cells; in prokaryotes, the process by which organisms bind together and one cell transfers DNA to the other cell through a structure called a sex pilus
Obligate Anaerobe An organism that needs the absence of oxygen in order to live
Facultative Anaerobe An organism that can live with or without oxygen
Exotoxin A potent, extracellular toxin secreted by some gram positive
Endotoxin A toxin that occurs in the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria and that is released when the bacterial cell breaks apart
Antibiotic Resistance The ability of a population of bacteria to survive the lethal effects of an antibiotic
Pathology A scientific study of disease
Created by: GutzwillerL19