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Rock, Mineral, Soil

Rocks, Minerals, and Soil Review

Which horizon would you find weathered rock and minerals? Horizon C
Which horizon would you find solid rock? Horizon R
Define mineral Solid, Crystal shape, Inorganic, Elements all the same (same compound throughout), Naturally occurring
Define a rock a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals, or organic matter
Define intrusive igneous rock that forms inside the earth
Define extrusive igneous rock that forms outside the earth on the surface
Define Mafic dark colored igneous rock lacking silicon
Define Felsic light colored igneous rock rich in silicon
Define erosion movement of sediment by wind, rain, and ice
Define weathering wearing away of rocks, minerals, and soil
The rate of weathering is due to ___________ and climate rock type
Soil formation begins with the weathering of _____ bedrock
Soil that is really fertile has a lot of ____________. humus
How long did it take for the thick, fertile soil to develop: _____ of years (CHOICES: several, dozens, hundreds, thousands) thousands
Plowing lands was one of the factors that created the _____________ Bowl. dust
A soil or rock that has many air spaces and allows water/air to pass through it is said to be _______________. permeable
Why does a fossil have to be present in the original sedimentary rock so that a fossil can be found in a metamorphic rock? metamorphic rock forms from igneous and sedimentary rock; igneous would burn the fossils.
Which horizon would you find loam that is rich in humus? Horizon A
Which horizon would you find clay, minerals, longer plant roots but little humus. Horizon B
Why is the rock cycle called a cycle? it is never ending
What is another name for soil horizon B? Subsoil
What is another name for soil horizon A? topsoil
What is another name for soil horizon R? bedrock
what type of soil would have 10% sand, 80% clay and 10% silt? clay
What type of igneous rock are the scientist trying to gather from Kilauea volcano in Hawaii? Extrusive igneous rock since it was formed by lava above the surface
What type of soil would have 50% sand, 10% clay and 40% silt? Loam
What 3 things determine the type of soil we have in Ohio? Climate, bedrock, and plant organisms
Freeze-thaw cycle (frost wedging) where water freezes and thaws over and over creating larger cracks in rock or soil.
Weathering by living things Roots or other living things break apart rocks and soil
Describe the difference between sand, silt, and clay in terms of their size. sand is large particles; silt is small size particle; clay is extremely small particle.
How does they particle type (clay, sand, silt, gravel) impact water moving through the soil? clay doesn't let much water through, silt is medium amount of water through, sand lets water through easily, gravel really lets water through.
Describe 6 different ways that farmers are conserving soil. contour plowing, crop rotation, conservation plowing, terracing, strip cropping, wind breaks
What is each layer of soil called? horizons
What are all the soil layer together called? soil profile
You find a rock made out of tiny rocks and sand compacted together, it is most likely a _______________ rock. sedimentary
You find a rock with folded layers, what type of rock is it? metamorphic, folilated (layers)
You find a rock with larger crystals, what type of rock is it? igneous, intrusive because of the large crystals
Why are coal and a glass marble NOT minerals? Coal is organic, glass doesn't have a crystal form,
Using the rock cycle, explain how a rock changes from magma to sedimentary rock? Magma heats up and flows out on the earth's surface as lava. The lava cools and becomes igneous. Erosion and weathering break down the rock and carry it away which makes it sedimentary rock.
Why isn't a brick classified as a mineral? It is not naturally occurring, it is man made
Sedimentary rock formed when dead plant and animal matter is compressed, examples are chalk, coal and limestone Organic sedimentary rock
The color left behind when a mineral is scratched across a surface is called? The streak test
A minerals resistance to being scratched? Hardness
Created by: meginnij
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