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Biology Semester 2

Final Exam review guide

what are the three parts of a nucleotide 1. sugar 2. Nitrogen Base 3. phosphate group
what is the shape of DNA as described by Watson and crick Double Helix
what two items make up the "backbone" or sides of the DNA ladder 1. sugar (deoxyribose) 2. phosphate group
what are the rules of base pairing Adenine = Thymine Cytosine = Guanine
Put the following words in order from largest to smallest: Nucleotide, Chromosome, Cell, DNA, Nucleotide Cell, Nucleus, Chromosome, DNA, Nucleotide
what is the result of DNA replication one new strand of DNA and one original strand of DNA
given the DNA bases: GATCCA, what should be the bases on the complementary strand of DNA CTAGGT
what is the sugar in RNA Ribose
what is the sugar in DNA Deoxyribose
what nitrogen bases are found in RNA Adenine, Uracil , Guanine, Cytosine
what nitrogen bases are found in DNA Adenine, Thymine , Guanine, Cytosine
what are the three types of RNA and their functions 1. mRNA: produced after transcription 2. rRNA: makes up ribosome with proteins 3. tRNA: brings in amino acids to ribosome. contains anti-codons ALL are involved in protein synthesis
what parts of a DNA molecule could be found in a RNA molecule 1. Nitrogen bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine) 2. phosphate group
what is transcription mRNA molecules are produced
what is translation the cell uses information from mRNA to produce proteins
how do codons and anti-codons differ codon - 3 bases in mRNA, specify an amino acid anti-codon- # bases in tRNA, brings amino acid to ribosome during translation
what are mutations change in the genetic make up of an orgainsm
what are gene mutations permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene
what are point mutations single base pair altered (example: substitution)
what are frame-shift mutations genetic mutation caused by insertions or deletions
define chromosomal mutations mutation that affects all or part of a chromosome
define deletion delete (remove) a section of a chromosome
define duplication add (insert) a section of a chromosome
define inversion reverse direction of parts of chromosome
define translocation part of chromosome breaks off and is added to different chromosome
who was Gregor Mendel Austrian monk; used pea plants to study the inheritance of traits
define genetics the study of heredity
what is heredity the passing on of traits from parents to offspring
what does a punnet square show 1. all possible results of a genetic cross 2. the genotypes of the offspring 3. the alleles in the gametes of each parent 4. DOES NOT show actual results
what is probability how likely something is to happen
what is the difference between the phenotype and genotype of an organism genotype: genetic make up of an organism (HH, Hh, hh) phenotype: physical characteristics (tall, short, purple)
define the following terms and give genotype for Homozygous dominant two dominant alleles for a trait (HH)
define the following terms and give genotype for Heterozygous two different alleles for a trait (Hh)
define the following terms and give genotype for Homozygous recessive two recessive alleles for a trait (hh)
what is the difference between incomplete dominance and co-dominance incomplete - one allele is not completely dominant over the other (red x white = pink) codominance - both alleles are expressed (Black x white = speckled)
define allele different forms of a gene
when is recessive trait seen or shown in an offspring when an organism has two recessive alleles for a gene or trait
what is genetic engineering process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
what is selective breeding artificial selection; humans breed plants or animals for particular traits
why is selective breeding used agriculture, dog breeding
explain the procedure of gel electrophoreis separates DNA/RNA/Proteins according to molecular sized
what are restriction enzymes DNA cutting enzymes
what are transgenic organisms organisms that have genes from other species inserted into their genome
how are transgenic organisms produced genetic engineering
what is a clone genetically identical individuals
what cells are needed to make a clone donor nucleus fused with empty egg cell
what is the human genome project sequenced all 3 billion base pairs of human DNA and identified all human genes
what is gene therapy the process of changing a gene to treat a medical disease or disorder
what is the purpose of gene therapy replace an absent or faulty gene with a normal, worlding gene
what are sex linked traits traits that are located on the X or Y chromosome (example: colorblindness)
what are the sex chromosomes of a normal male XY
what are the sex chromosomes of a normal female XX
what is the genetic cause of down syndrome 3 copies of the 21st chromosomes
what is a karyotype picture of chromosomes
what can a karyotype show the presence of abnormalities in chromosomes
what are autosomes not involved in determining sex (pairs 1- 22)
what percent chance is there that a baby born will be a boy 50%
what percent chance is there that a baby born will be a girl 50%
which parent determines the sex of a child the father because he can pass on an X or a Y
what is a pedigree chart that shows the relationships within families squares = males circles = females
if a shape on a pedigree is shaded, what does it mean the person expresses the trait
what does mean if an individual is carrier does not express the trait, but can pass the allele for the trait on to the next generation
distinguish between turner's syndrome and kleinfelter's syndrome turner's syndrome - females inherit only one X chromosome kleinfelter's syndrome - males inherit an extra X chromosome (XXY)
how do gene mutations differ from chromosomal mutations gene mutations - produce changes in a single gene chromosomal mutations - produce changes in the whole chromosome
what are the 4 types of chromosomal mutations deletion duplication inversion translocation
what are two pieces of information you can get from a karyotype 1. determine sex of individual 2. determine if a disorder
what was Charles Darwin's contribution to science he developed a scientific theory of evolution that explains how modern organisms evolved over long periods of time
what is the name of the book in which Darwin published his ideas origin of species
how of Darwin's stops/ports aboard the HMS beagle influenced him the most Galapagos islands because he studied finches and noticed that each island had a finch with a different type of beak
how did Hutton and Lyell influence Darwin and his work 1. they concluded that the earth is extremely old 2. the processes that changed earth in the past are the same that operate in the present
what were Lamarck's hypotheses of evolution individuals can pass these acquired traits traits on to offspring
what is an adaption any heritable characteristic that increase an organism ability to survive and reproduce
what is a vestigial organ/structure inherited from ancestors but have lost much or all of their original function
what is natural selection (survival of the fittest) individuals with adaptions well suited to environment can survive and reproduce
what are homologous structures structures that are shared by related species and have been inherited by a common ancestor
what evidence do homologous structures provide evolution or descent with modification from a common ancestor
what is a gene pool all of the genes present in a population
what is relative frequency related to a gene pool the number of times am allele occurs in a gene pool
what are the two main sources of genetic variation mutations: changes in genetic material genetic recombination in sexual reproduction: each chromosome moves independently during meiosis
distinguish between single gene traits and polygenic traits single-gene traits: controlled by one gene 2-3 distinct phenotypes polygenic traits: controlled by 2 or more genes, multiple phenotypes
what is speciation formation of a new species
what is behavioral isolation two populations develop differences in courtship rituals or other behaviors
what is geographic isolation two populations are separated by geographic barriers
what is temporal isolation two or more species reproduce at different times
distinguish between coevolution and convergent evolution coevolution -2 species evolve together overtime convergent evolution - 2 unrelated species begin to appear similar
what is adaptive radiation many species branch off from one common ancestral species
what is antibiotic resistance mutations in DNA of certain bacteria prevent them from being killed by certain prescribed medication
what is taxonomy branch of biology that groups and names organisms
define classification grouping of objects or information based on similarities
define phylogeny the evolutionary history of an organism
what is binomial nomenclature classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
explain how to write the scientific name of a species correctly - first term is capitalized - Latin - italics
what does the name tell you about the organism the genus and species
what is the largest taxon or classification group in Linnaeus' system kingdom
list the classification groups or taxa in order from largest to smallest Kingdom, Phylum, Class, order, family, genus, species
what 4 criteria are used to group organisms - cell type - cell structure - number of cells - mode of nutrition
what are the three domains bacteria: eubacteria archaea: archaebacteria eukarya: protista, plantae, animalia, fungi
what are the difference between a food chain and food web food chain - series of steps in an ecosystem in which organism transfer energy food web - many food chains put together
what are decomposers organisms that break down and obtain energy from dead and decaying organic matter (fungi, bacteria)
what do herbivores eat plants only
what do carnivores eat meat only
what do omnivores eat both plants and meat
distinguish between a population and a community population - groups of indviuls of the sam species that live in the same area community - a group of different population that live together in a defined area
what is the biosphere the entire planet
define species one organism (individual)
what is included in an ecosystem all the organism that live together in a place with their physical environment
what are autotrophs capture energy from sunlight or chemicals
what are heterotrophs acquire energy by eating other organisms
distinguish between chemo-synthesis and photosynthesis chemo-synthesis:use of chemical energy to produce carbohydrates photosynthesis:captures light energy to make carbohydrates
distinguish between biotic and abiotic factors biotic: living factors (flowers, frogs) abiotic: nonliving factors ( rain, temperature)
what occurs during predation one organism captures and feeds on another organism
what are the three types of symbiotic relationships mutualism: both benefit parasitism: one harms the other and benefits commensalism: one benefits, the other is not helped or harmed
what organisms are always at the base of an energy pyramid primary producers because flows from producers to consumers
describe what happens to energy as it flows through the trophic levels - most energy is used for life processes - leftover is released as heat - 10% is passed on to the next trophic level
the locations of biomes are usually determined by what two factors - biotic - abiotic
how does the flow of energy differ from the flow of matter through an ecosystem energy flows in one direction, malter is recycled
compare and contrast the processes of nitrogen fixation and denitrification nitrogen fixation - coverting N2 to NH3 denitrification - converting NO3 back to N2
how does the phosphorus cycle differ from all the other biogeochemical cycles it does not enter the atmosphere
what is the water cycle the repeated movement of water through earth's atmosphere
define precipitation water falls to earth
define condensation water vapor in the air
define evaporation liquid water warms and forms water vapor
define transpiration water vapor from plants
what is a niche physical/biological conditions conditions where a species lives and the way a species obtains what it needs to survive
what items does a niche include how it interacts
compare and contrast primary secondary succession primary - newly exposed surfaces secondary succession - soil
distinguish between weather and climate weather - day to day conditions climate - year after year patterns of temperature + precipitation
list some abiotic and biotic characteristics of the tundra biome abiotic - permafrost, little precipitation biotic -
list some abiotic and biotic characteristics of the tropical rain forest biome abiotic - hot, rainy biotic - more speices than all other biomes combined
list some abiotic and biotic characteristics of the temperate forest biome abiotic - 4 seasons biotic - coniferous-trees
what is the difference between immigration and emigration immigration - move into emigration - move out of
what are limiting factors factor that controls the growth of a population (Examples: competition, predation, unusual weather)
what are density-independent factors affects all populations (Examples: competition, predation)
what is population density the number of individuals per unit area
what is carrying capacity the maximum number of individuals an environment can support
what is exponential growth happens with unlimited resources, gross and grows
how is exponential growth displayed in a graph J curve
define demography study of human populations
how do birth rates and death rates affect the size of a population gros: BR> dr same: BR=dr shrink: BR < dr
what is biodiversity all of the living thing in the biosphere
what does biodiversity provide for humans medicine, agriculture, ecosystem goods and services
explain tech difference between an exotic/invasive species and endangered species exotic/invasive species - not native, take over an ecosystem endangered species - reduced numbers and are in danger of going extinct
what are density-dependent factors affects all populations (Examples: natural disasters, unusual weather
Created by: sibby1214



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