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9th grade bio final

Vocab and other terms

TermDefinition
Karyotype the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
Gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Genome the haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism.hgn
Mutation a permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Homologous chromosome a pair of chromosomes that match up at meiosis and are identical in morphology and arrangement
Somatic cell any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
Diploid (of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Haploid (of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
Autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Chiasmata a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands.
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Poly genetics of or relating to polygenesis; having more than one origin or source.
True-breeding A plant is one that, when self-fertilized, only produces offspring with the same traits. The alleles for these type of plants are homozygous
Hybridization to form a double-stranded nucleic acid of two single strands of DNA or RNA, or one of each, by allowing the base pairs of the separate strands to form complementary bonds.
The law of segregation stating that during the production of gametes the two copies of each hereditary factor segregate so that offspring acquire one factor from each parent.
Incomplete dominance refers to a genetic situation in which one allele does not completely dominate another allele, and therefore results in a new phenotype.
Codominant Relating to two alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote that are both fully expressed. When alleles for both white and red are present in a carnation, for example, the result is a pink carnation
Created by: 31jak