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1. thrombotic occlusion 2. embolic occlusion 3. vascular rupture 3 processes of cerebrovascular diseases
functional hypoxia low partial pressure of O2, impaired O2 carrying capacity are some examples of this
ischemia result of tissue hypo perfusion caused by hypotension and vascular obstruction; form of hypoxia
global cerebral ischemia widespread ischemic injury with generalized reduction of cerebral perfusion below 50 mm Hg pressure
focal cerebral ischemia due to a cerebral occlusion that causes focal ischemia -{embolic infarcts are the most common}
paradoxical emboli embolus from venous circulation crosses to arterial through atrial or ventricular septal defect
cerebral infarcts most commonly in areas supplied by the middle cerebral artery
transient ischemic attack (TIA) precedes a cerebral infarct, neurologic dysfunction caused by self-limited episodes of obstruction
primary brain parenchymal hemorrhage spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhages; hypertension is underlying cause
subarachnoid hemorrhage and saccular aneurysms acute increases in intracranial pressure; can cause a rupture of a saccular (berry) aneurysm
chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) trauma associated with degeneration of the brain; in NFL players
contusions brain hits skull during head injury; rapid tissue displacement and hemorrhage
diffuse axonal injury widespread injury to axons in brain due to movement of one area of the brain relative to another
concussion reversible altered consciousness from head injury in absence of contusion; transient neurologic issues
epidural hematoma middle meningeal artery vulnerable to injury; neurosurgical emergency
subdural hematoma between dura and brain; in babies and old people
epidural abscesses adjacent to site of infection, forms pus in a new cavity
subdural empyema infections in skull or sinuses, can spread and form pus in a normal cavity
meningitis (leptomeningitis) inflammatory process of leptomeninges in subarachnoid space; called {meningoencephalitis} if it goes to brain
acute pyogenic meningitis (bacterial meningitis) smear can be cultured from CSF; patients show signs of systemic infection
aseptic meningitis infection of mycobacteria or spirochetes
neurosyphilis tertiary stage of disease, loss of mental and physical functions -paretic syphilis- invasion to brain
tabes dorsalis wasting of peripheral nerves in dorsal root so impaired proprioception
Charcot joints loss of pain sensation leading to skin and joint damage in tertiary syphilis
brain abscesses almost always bacterial infection; destructive lesions
viral encephalitis almost always associated with the meninges so aka {meningoencephalitis}
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by JC virus in AIDS patients; demyelinates oligodendrites
prion disease (spongiform encephalopathies) microscopic vacuolation in neurons; abnormal forms of prion protein
scapie prion disease in sheep
bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion disease in cattle
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease rare prion disease of rapid dementia in people over 70
variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease aka 'Mad Cow Disease'; acquired in younger people from BSE
demyelinating diseases normal myelin is broken down; includes MS and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
multiple sclerosis (MS) autoimmune demyelinating disease; unilateral visual impairment is often first sign
dysmyelinating diseases metabolic disorders of abnormal myelin aka {leukodystrophy}
leukodystrophies inherited diseases of mutations of normal myelin formation or turnover
thiamine deficiency causes Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Wernicke encephalopathy confusion, eye movements, and ataxia; thiamine deficiency
Korsakoff syndrome thiamine deficiency that progresses to this irreversible condition, memory disturbances
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome thiamine deficiency in alcoholics
Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to {pernicious anemia} and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord
dementia development of memory impairment and cognitive deficits, decreasing functional ability
Alzheimer disease most common cause of dementia in elderly
beta amyloid peptide that accumulates in brain, initiates chain of events that results in AD
tau hyperphosphorylated by beta amyloid; redistributes and forms tangles
plaques extracellular lesion of AD
neurofibrillary tangles intracellular lesion of AD
Parkinson Disease masked facies, stooped posture, slow movement and tremor; damage to dopaminergic neurons
Lewy body diagnostic of Parkinson Disease; inclusion of alpha-synuclein for synaptic transmission
Huntington Disease auto-dominantly inherited disease, jerky movements and dementia; trinucleotide repeat in Huntington gene
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease) death of low motor neurons in spinal cord and upper motor neurons in cortex; superoxide dismutase mutation -death by respiratory infection
glioma tumors of brain parenchyma that resemble glial cells
astrocytoma most common group of primary CNS tumors
medulloblastomas in children and in cerebellum, highly malignant; kids with Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma
meningioma benign adult tumors, usually attached to dura
tuberous sclerosis auto-dominantly inherited syndrome of hamartomas (tubers) that cause seizures
Von Hippel Lindau Disease auto-dominantly inherited disorder of hemangioblastomas on CNS structures; can develop renal cell carcinoma
Created by: aharnold