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Mendel's Law

Vocabulary

allele any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are responsible for hereditary variation.
fertilization the union of male and female gametic nuclei.
gametes a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism.
gene the basic physical unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides the coded instructions for synthesis of RNA, which, when translated into protein, leads to the expression of hereditary character.
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits.
heterozygous having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic.
homologous having the same alleles or genes in the same order of arrangement
chromosome any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and X and Y for the female and male sex chromosomes respectively.
homozygous having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics.
hybrid a person or group of persons produced by the interaction or crossbreeding of two unlike cultures, traditions, etc.
assort to group with others of the same or similar kind; connect or identify as of a similar class; associate
meiosis part of the process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjugation and two cell divisions, in the course of which the diploid chromosome number becomes reduced to the haploid.
phenotype the appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype
probability the extent to which an event is likely to occur, measured by the ratio of the favorable cases to the whole number of cases possible.
Punnett spuare The diagram used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype
zygote a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.
Created by: ratgal1738